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    題名: 歐盟農業政策在Agenda 2000後的新走向對於法國鄉村發展及農業深根結構影響之研究
    其他題名: New cap trends and its impact on the development of French rural & agricultural infrastructures
    作者: 簡琇瑩;Jian, Hsiu-ying
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼;Yuan, Yi-mond
    關鍵詞: 共同農業政策;農業改革;鄉村發展政策;2000年議程;法國;CAP;agricultural reform;rural development policy;Agenda 2000;France
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:00:40 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 「農業」一直是各國的立國根本,即使是科技的發達的國家,農業對於經濟發展都有其重要性,一個農業沒有良好發展的國家,可能會影響國家的後續發展,例如:工業、服務業、社會大眾或是國家其他政策的推行。隨著時代不斷的進步、科技日益更新,農業在和各國的經濟產業結構上已有所改變,迫使各國將農業轉型,讓農業也可以面對世界市場競爭。
      當歐盟共同農業政策相關措施制訂出後,會員國面對其政策可能與國內政策有所衝突或無法適應時,歐盟需要採行的措施;面對各個會員國不同的農業背景和型態,歐盟農業政策該如何的施行以落實農業政策目標,以提高農業的生產力、提高農業人口所得及生活水準、穩定市場、確保產品供應無虞和確保消費者以合理的價格購買產品,這些都是農業政策所要追求。
      歐盟的農業政策從60年代開始發展以來,一直不斷的改革,90年代開始注重農業鄉村的發展,並在2000年議程(Agenda 2000)中正式將鄉村發展政策納為農業政策的第二支柱,更加重視整個農業環境和資源的永續發展並推行相關政策。在歐洲共同體當中,尤於法國的農業用地占全國土地面積的59%,生產出的農產品量也為歐盟第一,屬創始會員國中的農業大國,面對國土內廣大的鄉村地區,法國政府也利用各地特色、土地規劃及觀光發展等相關政策,讓農民或鄉村居民有較穩定的收入和減少城鄉之間的差距及失業等問題。
    For many countries, Agriculture represents the base of their national economy. Even in the most technologically developed countries, agriculture still play its role in the progress of State; in parallel to industrial or service sector, public’s wealth and other national policies, agricultural policy includes rural areas infrastructure and propose ways to better serve our society in move. This change might by the same time increase agriculture production and competitiveness in the world market in sustainable considerations.
    The EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was settled at the dawn of EU. According to the different agricultural structure of each member state, EU has to adjust the instruments of policy, the most adapted national policy of member states, where the EU’s policy conflicted. The first primary goal of CAP was an increase of agricultural productivity, to be achieved through technical progress, by ensuring the rational development of agricultural production, and by offering optimum use of the factors of production, particularly labor. To ensure a fair standard of living, particularly by increasing individual earning of persons engaged in agriculture; to stabilize markets, assure the availability of supplies and ensure that supplies reach consumers at reasonable prices, which are also the important objectives of the CAP.
    Until today, the CAP has been reformed several times. Since 1990s, EU’s rural development policy evolved as part of the development of the CAP, from a policy dealing with the structural problems of the farm sector to a policy addressing the multiple roles of farming in society. The strengthening of EU rural development policy has became an overall EU priority. The rural development policy has introduced as the 2nd pillar of the CAP in Agenda 2000, in which has given less emphasis to market mechanisms and through targeted support measures become more oriented towards conservation of agri-environment, natural resources, etc., especially the multi-functionality of agriculture.
    France count among the wider agricultural land use covering 59% of French territory, and it is the 1st agricultural producer and exporter of EU’s member countries. For better management of rural area, the French government established and implemented several policies and plans to enhance the quality of life in rural area, to increase the individual earnings, to reduce the gap of urban and rural, and also resolve the problem of unemployment. Emergence of new rural functions will change agricultural structure and might improve the economy; those are the elements to enforce rural zones shifting into different types of rising local economy.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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