For many countries, Agriculture represents the base of their national economy. Even in the most technologically developed countries, agriculture still play its role in the progress of State; in parallel to industrial or service sector, public’s wealth and other national policies, agricultural policy includes rural areas infrastructure and propose ways to better serve our society in move. This change might by the same time increase agriculture production and competitiveness in the world market in sustainable considerations.
The EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was settled at the dawn of EU. According to the different agricultural structure of each member state, EU has to adjust the instruments of policy, the most adapted national policy of member states, where the EU’s policy conflicted. The first primary goal of CAP was an increase of agricultural productivity, to be achieved through technical progress, by ensuring the rational development of agricultural production, and by offering optimum use of the factors of production, particularly labor. To ensure a fair standard of living, particularly by increasing individual earning of persons engaged in agriculture; to stabilize markets, assure the availability of supplies and ensure that supplies reach consumers at reasonable prices, which are also the important objectives of the CAP.
Until today, the CAP has been reformed several times. Since 1990s, EU’s rural development policy evolved as part of the development of the CAP, from a policy dealing with the structural problems of the farm sector to a policy addressing the multiple roles of farming in society. The strengthening of EU rural development policy has became an overall EU priority. The rural development policy has introduced as the 2nd pillar of the CAP in Agenda 2000, in which has given less emphasis to market mechanisms and through targeted support measures become more oriented towards conservation of agri-environment, natural resources, etc., especially the multi-functionality of agriculture.
France count among the wider agricultural land use covering 59% of French territory, and it is the 1st agricultural producer and exporter of EU’s member countries. For better management of rural area, the French government established and implemented several policies and plans to enhance the quality of life in rural area, to increase the individual earnings, to reduce the gap of urban and rural, and also resolve the problem of unemployment. Emergence of new rural functions will change agricultural structure and might improve the economy; those are the elements to enforce rural zones shifting into different types of rising local economy.