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    題名: 服務業在新加坡競爭力所扮演的角色之探討
    其他題名: A study of the role of services in Singapore's competitiveness
    作者: 翁海清;Weng, Hai-ching
    貢獻者: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    林欽明;Lin, Chin-ming
    關鍵詞: 新加坡;服務業;競爭力;創新系統;知識型服務業;資訊技術;Singapore;services;Competitiveness;innovation system;KIBS;Information Technology
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:59:45 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在增值活動中,一個國家穩定且創新的生產要素可產生的收益,反映了這個國家的優勢與比較利益。研究也顯示知識密集服務確實有助於提升製造業成長,另外也加強了客戶的革新能量並且刺激原本擁有的創新,故政策支持知識密集服務業的發展是非常值得去嘗試的。產業群聚是一個國家競爭優勢的主要來源之一,由於服務業的獨特性質,使得服務業的產業群聚大多發生在都市中。新加坡是一個城市型的國家,它極適合發展服務業,也使得其革新系統能夠快速有效的散佈,廠商可以快速獲得新的知識和技術,並透過制度的革新使得知識重新組合與散佈,進而造成良性的循環。
    一個國家的競爭優勢來源,主要乃是由一國不同的產業所構成,不同的產業對於所處的環境與需求也不盡相同。因此本文研究的方式乃是先找出國家最具關鍵性的產業,再去了解服務業中間投入是否有助於此關鍵性產業的發展,進而推斷出以服務業為中間投入,是否有助於國家競爭力的提升。相關的文獻中提及,在東南亞國家中,電子業對於航空貨運的需求相當依賴,並且航空貨運也影響廠商的供應鏈管理戰略等。故本研究從新加坡航空貨運作為電子業中間投入來考量,了解航空貨運的投入是否提升電子業的產業優勢,進而了解作為產品的中間投入是否影響著國家的競爭優勢。
    此外,新加坡所建構的資訊交流平台,將這些重要的高科技製造業和知識型服務業連接起來,這使得溝通成本能有效降低,各產業資訊得以有效整合,提高其效率及效果。如此相輔相成的結果,也印證了新加坡透過資訊服務媒介使得以製造業和服務業作為經濟發展的雙引擎其做法相當成功。
    本研究發現,新加坡將知識型服務業座落在高科技製造業外圍,形成了群聚的現象,並且利用資訊通訊服務將兩者連接起來,透過這樣的做法,使得知識得以快速的在廠商間流動,使其創新體系可以不斷的翻新,外溢效果明顯。故服務業在新加坡雖然不是扮演對外競爭力主要的角色,但是卻是間接促成製造業產品的對外競爭力不可或缺的要角。
    Abstract:
    In production activities, the revenues out of steady and innovative factors of production reflect a country’s competitive and comparative advantages. Studies have shown that knowledge-intensive services can stimulate manufacturing growth. They can also enhance customers’ renovating capabilities and therefore the ability to innovate continuously. Hence, government should implement policies supporting the development of such services. Industrial clustering is the main source of a country’s competitive advantage. Furthermore, the clustering of services, with their particular characteristics, is occurring mostly in the cities, whereas Singapore, as a typical city state, is very suitable to develop such service clusterings. Knowledge and technologies can be disseminated rapidly and effectively to firms which are then reformulated and further disseminated as a virtuous cycle.
    A country’s competitive advantage is implicit in its industrial structures in which various industries have their own specific environmental needs. The study tried at first to identify the key industry of a country and then to explore how service inputs can help the development of such industry and enhance the competitive advantage of the whole economy. Several studies have shown that electronics industry is heavily dependent on air freight services which in turn also affect supply-chain strategies of firms. Therefore, this study focuses on Singapore’s aircraft shipping services which are used as intermediate inputs in electronics, the leading sector in Singapore, and are deemed to enhance Singapore’s competitive advantages.
    On the other hand, Singapore’s information exchange platform has connected high tech manufacturings and knowledge-based services. This platform has also effectively lowered the communicating cost as well as integrated information from various industries. It has been shown that manufacturing and services, as Singapore’s dual strategic engines for economic growth, are reinforcing each other and, through information technologies, lead to great success in Singapore’s competitiveness.
    The study also found the clustering of services, at the outskirt of high tech manufacturing industries which are interconnected through information and communication technologies with the former, has accelerated the rapid flow of knowledges among firms and perpetuated the innovation system which resulted in great spill-over effects. It is concluded that services have played a crucial role in reinforcing competitive advantage of high tech manufacturings in Singapore, even though they may not be highly competitive by themslves.
    顯示於類別:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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