The population of Chinese in Indonesia accounts for 1/5 oversea Chinese around the world. Since the Dutch colonial period, Indonesian Chinese and the Indonesian aboriginals have been living and governed separately. Thus, transfer of power usually occurred with anti-Chinese riots.
Despite the fact that Indonesian Chinese have settled in Indonesia for generations and made contribution to independence of Indonesia, their loyalty to the nation was constantly doubted due to their citizenships, especially during the anti-Chinese movement of the Suharto period.
After 1965 September 30th Movement (Gestapu), a movement intended to kill Chinese people in the name of anti-communism, the Indonesian government adopted assimilation policies in political, economical, social, and cultural aspects, and
also used Chinese Cukong to set up their own business kingdom. During the financial storm of 1997, there was a sharp contrast between the luxurious life of Chinese Cukong and the poor life of Indonesian people. Anti-corruption movements thus emerged one after another, finally resulting in the step-down of Suharto.
Later, through leadership of Habibie, Wahid, Megawati, and Yudhoyono, many
anti-Chinese bans have been progressively relaxed, thus gradually elevating the status of Indonesia Chinese. However, the anti-Chinese sentiments still reside in the society and need to be ironed out through government’s effort to educate citizens to jointly create a society that complies with the principle of “equifinality”