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    Title: 印尼的勞工運動評述
    Other Titles: A critical exposition of labor movement in Indonesia
    Authors: 梁翠苹;Liang, Tsui-pin
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    洪鎌德;高崇雲
    Keywords: 印尼;勞工運動;工會;勞工組織;Indonesia;Labor movement;Trade Union;Labor Organization
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:58:45 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 印尼勞工人數眾多,可是勞工運動明顯地較少,而勞工們又如何爭取自己的權益?在本文中,從荷蘭殖民統治時期,勞工組織開始出現,一直到蘇哈托政權結束之後的勞工運動加以回顧,並和當時的政治經濟情境對照,希望能對印尼的勞工運動的發展與演變有初步的了解並加以評述。

    二十世紀初期,印尼許多工會和勞工組織幾乎都和共產黨有密切的關係或往來。在殖民統治之下,特別是經濟大恐慌期間,造成印尼人民-尤其是農工生活困難。這時,共產黨打倒帝國主義殖民者的訴求,對他們而言有相當大的吸引力。

    1945年印尼獨立之後,幾乎所有較大規模的勞工活動都是由共產黨所領導或發動。但勞工組織也和蘇卡諾政權有密切的互動,有一些工會組織也接受當時的執政黨—印尼國民黨的領導。

    在1965年之後,軍方開始積極進行殲滅共產黨的行動,工會也在被打擊的範圍內。除此之外,為了發展經濟及吸引外資,印尼的勞工運動也因而受到當局的壓制。但隨著1990年之後印尼的經濟狀況改變,罷工及示威次數增加,印尼政府也多次修改相關規定,以及提高最低工資。

    1998年蘇哈托政結束,勞工運動的次數也因政府的管制較鬆散而變得比較頻繁。然而由於政治經濟的不穩定,使得雖然政府減少了對勞工運動的壓制,勞工處境及權益的改善仍是很有限的。
    There are numerous labors in Indonesia, but the labor movements are obviously very few. So, how did the Indonesian labors struggle for their own rights? This thesis will review the development of Indonesia’s labor movements from the Dutch colonial period to the end of the Suharto regime, and explore the political and economic background.

    In the early twentieth-century Indonesia, many trade unions and labor organizations had close relations and interactions with the Communist Party. Under the colonial ruling, especially during the economic depression, Indonesian people had a difficult time. The farmers and labors in particular lived very hard. Therefore, the Communist Party’s appeals to overthrow imperialism or colonialism became very attractive to them at that time.

    After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, nearly all the large-scale labor movements were led or held by the communists. But labor organizations also had close interactions with the Sukarno government. Some trade unions were dominated by the ruling party—“Indonesian National Party”.

    Since 1965, the Army engaged in annihilating the communists, and trade unions were repressed too. Moreover for the purpose of enhancing economic growth and foreign investment, labor movements were suppressed by the authorities. After 1990, with the change of economic conditions, strikes and demonstrations of labors had increased. Indonesian government also amended the laws and raised the minimum wage from time to time.

    President Suharto fell from power in 1998, and the political and economic situation of Indonesia was rather unstable. Meanwhile the labor movements arose more frequently because the government had loosened controls on labor movements. However the improvement in labor’s treatment and rights was quite limited.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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