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    Title: 國家行銷與國際競爭力 : 泰國觀光業之研究
    Other Titles: The marketing of nations and international competitiveness : a study of tourism in Thailand
    Authors: 賴明汰;Lai, Ming-tai
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    林欽明;Lin, Chin-ming
    Keywords: 泰國觀光業;國際競爭力;國家行銷;經濟發展;觀光政策;The Tourism Industry of Thailand;The Competitiveness of Nations;The Marketing of Nations;Economic Development;The Tourism Policy
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:58:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 波特(Michael Porter)於1990年提出國家競爭力(competitiveness of nations)的概念後,科特勒(Philip Kotler)隨後於1997年也指出《國家行銷》(marketing of nations)的重要性,兩者均強調「政府」是國家產業發展與提昇國家國際競爭力的重要「參數」,而這樣的見解也符合整個「東亞奇蹟」的產業發展模式。

    泰國由於自古君主專制及長期由軍人掌政,其經濟發展除了傾向以「國家機關」為主導(state-led)的模式外,另一個泰國經濟發展歷程中的重要特色即是政府對觀光產業的重視。自1977年起泰國政府即開始每五年為期的觀光發展計劃,觀光外匯收入也於1982年時成為泰國最大外匯收入來源,這使得泰國政府更加強往後以發展觀光業增加外匯收入與促進泰國經濟發展的政策方向。此外泰國政府也巧妙地於金融風暴期間推出「驚豔泰國計劃」,讓觀光產業成為當時支撐泰國經濟的重要產業之一。

    由泰國的經驗觀之,政府對於產業發展的影響除了利用政策引導民間投資外,如何面對與解決產業發展所遭遇的衝突與問題,進而修正及檢討產業發展方向,政府均扮演著舉足輕重的角色。由於觀光產業明顯外部性的特色,其產業發展確實需要政府帶頭推動,而觀光產業做為綜合性的服務產業,其所牽涉到的產業範圍極廣,這樣的特性除可平衡國家因快速工業化而可能造成產業結構失衡的問題外,更可促進國內產業的多元化發展之外,並有助於紓解政府在面對國內經濟衝擊時的壓力。
    Michael E. Porter announced his concept of “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” in 1990 at the first time, and then Philip Kolter also points out the importance of “The Marketing of Nations.” Both of them emphasize “the government” as the major parameter for developing national industries and improving international competitiveness of nations. This idea is also in accordance with the model of the East Asian Miracle.

    As a result of an absolute monarchy and military despotism in history, the Kingdom of Thailand adapted a state-led economic development model. Another important feature of economic development of Thailand is the crucial role of tourism industry. Since 1977 the Thai government launched its first five-year tourism development plan, and in 1982 the international tourism receipt became the major foreign income in Thailand. This is the reason why Thai government pays more attention to use tourism to increase the foreign exchange income and to enhance economic development. Furthermore, Thai government initiated “amazing Thailand program” to make tourism industry one of the mainstay to restore Thailand’s economy during and after the financial crisis in 1997.

    Viewed from Thailand’s experience, the government not only uses policies to encourage investment in private sectors but also tries to resolve conflicts and issues of national industry development and their future prospects. With externalities in tourism industry, it is better to have government taking the lead. Moreover, tourism, as an all-round service industry, connects and involves extreme range of industries. Therefore, government can use this industry to balance the national industrial structure and to accelerate the diversification of national industrial development as well as ease the pressure the government may face in economic clashes.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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