|摘要: ||以企業經營的角度，來探討馬來西亞華人企業經營模式與決策，以「雲頂集團」(Genting Group)為中心研究範圍。首先，是以東南亞華人及華人企業，在當地國的形成與發展，來探討東南亞華人的經濟活動與雲頂集團事業的緣起。分析馬來西亞政府在各個時期的政策，對華人企業造成的影響與彼此間的相互關係，及華人企業的因應方式；其次，是以華人所經營的雲頂集團之個案，來探討雲頂企業集團在馬來西亞的形成與發展的背景與現況。雲頂與其他的企業集團又有何差異之處，並分析國內、外的政經環境及國內不同的宗教、社會及文化背景下，其因應態度與對策。1997年金融風暴的前後，集團的因應策略與舉措而將危機化為轉機，在現代化的潮流趨勢下，又如何挑戰國際跨國經營的企業競爭力；最後，以研究後所發現的諸多重點，及未來值得省思之處做為本文的結論。|
This study concerns enterprise management, specifically focusing on the Malaysian Chinese enterprises in their management and decision-making patterns, with Genting Group as a particular research case. It first explores the Southeast Asian Chinese and the Chinese Business in their local formation and development, especially on business activities of the Genting Group . It is found that the Malaysian government, in various time period, had some influences toward the Chinese Businesses as well as interacted with each other. The study next explores how Genting Group was transforming in the environment of Malaysia''s policy development and economic situations. Genting differs somewhat from other business groups, and endeavors to accommodate with domestic and foreign political changes in such aspects as religion, society and culture. In responding to the 1997 financial crisis, the Group adopted a strategy of transforming the crisis into opportunities and acted aggressively to increase its competitiveness facing severe challenges in the international sphere. Lastly, it summarizes findings in the study and points out key areas for future research.
Through the study it is found that whether for Southeast Asian countries or particular business such as the Genting Group of Malaysia, the protection of aboriginal nationals always takes precedent and many Chinese and Chinese businesses therefore faced deep pressures in their development, particular in adapting to the “assimilation policy" and "anti-Chinese" measures. Before the 1980''s, excessive government interventions forced the Chinese either left the country or expanded into conglomerates taking part in transnational activities. In the 1980''s and 1990''s, the government adopted more lenient policies which were greatly appreciated by many Chinese people. At the same time, ethnic conflict also softened which saw a rising opportunity for cooperation between Malays and Chinese, hence the former phenomena of "Ali Baba" disappeared and a modernized union emerged. In its development process, Genting Group revealed a unique management pattern and decision-making styles which, in facing various hindrances and negative impacts, establishes a capability to contribute to Malaysia’s tourism and other development.
In conclusions, the study raises the importance of Genting Group''s management characteristics, the Chinese identification to resident countries and the competitive and cooperative relations between Chinese businesses and other capitals. Gambling is the foundation for Genting Group’s development, which is now emulated by many Southeast Asian or other Asian countries, with either potitive or negative criticisms. Moreover, many enterprises in Southeast Asia are facing the problem of business succession which is worth observing in the near future.