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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/30796

    Title: 印尼激進穆斯林組織Jemaah Islamiyah 之研究
    Other Titles: The study of Indonesian radical muslim group: Jemaah Islamiyah
    Authors: 林靖諺;Lin, Ching-yen
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    林長寬;Lin, Chang-kuan
    Keywords: 伊斯蘭團;激進穆斯林;聖戰士;經學院;伊斯蘭國家;伊斯蘭法;伊斯蘭復興運動;瓦哈比運動;Jemaah Islamiyah;Radical Muslim;Mujahidin;Pesantren;Islamic State;Shariah;Islamism;Wahabbi
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:58:17 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2002年10月12日發生於印尼巴厘島恐怖攻擊事件,是自2001年美國911事件後,發生於東南亞地區,造成大規模死傷的恐怖攻擊,這使得以美國為首的西方世界意識到發生在美國境內的911攻擊事件,也有可能印證在世界各地;這也讓西方世界認為全球性激進穆斯林組織(Radical Muslim or Militant Muslim)正與「蓋達組織」結合,藉由冷戰時期的蘇聯入侵阿富汗時期所建立的「聖戰校友」(Jihadist Alumni)網絡,透過交互金錢援助、軍事訓練以及人員流通,也讓立基於印尼當地的激進穆斯林組織-「伊斯蘭團」(Jemaah Islamiyah)就此曝光。本文就當前印尼激進穆斯林組織「伊斯蘭團」,其組織脈絡及歷史背景作深入研究,並探討「伊斯蘭復興主義」及當前印尼伊斯蘭經學院網絡。
    「伊斯蘭團」源自於1950年代的印尼西爪哇的「伊斯蘭國家運動」(Darul Islam),該運動於1965年遭印尼國家軍鎮壓後終止,殘餘成員政治活動轉為地下化;歷經蘇哈托主政的「新秩序時期」數十年打壓伊斯蘭團體的政治環境,「伊斯蘭國家運動」成員Abu Bakar Baasyir與Abdullah Sungkar兩人在1971年成立了被視為「伊斯蘭團」前身的經學院Pesantren al-Mukmin(Pondok Ngruki),兩人於1980年代停留於阿富汗「蓋達組織」組織武裝訓練營,並與首領-Osama bin Laden熟稔。兩人並於1998年蘇哈托下台後,回到印尼發展政治伊斯蘭組織,藉構建「伊斯蘭團」及宣揚「伊斯蘭復興主義」(Islamic Revivalism)來使印尼達到以「伊斯蘭法」(Shariah)為國家基本法的「伊斯蘭國家」(Islam State)。
    「伊斯蘭復興主義」及「原教旨主義」(Salafiyyah),均標榜伊斯蘭傳統教義為亂世解藥,穆斯林應返回先知穆罕默德麥加時期的純樸虔誠,「原教旨主義」起源於十八世紀由瓦哈比(Abu Abd al-Wahhab)所引領的『瓦哈比運動』(Wahabbiyyah),歷經創立「穆斯林兄弟會」的埃及宗教學者Hassan al Banna、Muhammad Abduh、Rashid Rida、Sayyid Qutb、Abul Ala Mawdudi等宗教學者的思想傳承,尤以Sayyid Qutb其影響最鉅,其著作在1982年伊朗輸出革命成功後大量被翻譯為印尼文。
    架構於宗教學習及伊斯蘭教義教授的傳統經學院(Pesantren)及宗教學院 (Madrass)成為印尼激進穆斯林分子的流通平台,激進穆斯林主義者透過經學院彼此交流及宗教學習,建立以宗教教育為培養新世代激進穆斯林主義者之首要目標,待宗教思想確立及宗教涵養深厚之後,在輔以軍事訓練及組織管理教育,成為信仰虔誠之「聖戰士」(Mujahiddin),並派遣「聖戰士」執行攻擊行動或參與政治活動。
    Widespread outrage at the Madrid bombing in March 2004 that killed 191 and wounded countless others produced mass demonstrations across Spain. Indonesia, on the other hand, continuing to view terrorism as a relatively minor problem, despite being the victims of four major bombings and there have been no major demonstration against terrorism in Indonesia.
    Jemaah Islamiyah, a radical Muslim group derives from the Darul Islam rebellion , a political struggle for an Islamic State of Indonesia in West Java and Southern Sulawesi in the 1950s. Under the leadership of two Indonesian clerics Abdullah Sungkar and Abu Bakar Baasyir, Jemaah Islamiyah is a militant Muslim group whose stated goals are to run Indonesia into an Islamic State and advocates the implementation of Shariah.
    Furthermore, in order to study the origins of radical Muslim groups, “Islamism” is the most helpful and accurate term to define. Islamism means different from the sort of “fundamentalism”, Islamism is a response to modernity that has transformed the religion of Islam into a political ideology. Almost all Islamists, both modernist and traditionalist, are bound by the belief that Indonesia should be governed by Islamic law and this led to certain tactical alliances among them during debates over the inclusion of the Jakarta Chapter in Article 29 of the 1945 Constitution.Radical Islam is able to tap into the growing resistance among segments of the Indonesian populace to globalization and the spread of Western culture. Islamic revival is not the same thing as religious fanaticism and Islamist political parties are also able to capitalize on fears of social globalization that are seen as threats to cultural morals and region.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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