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    Title: 印尼「亞齊解放運動」(Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, GAM)之研究 : 政治與宗教之分離意識
    Other Titles: Study on the Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM) movement, a critical survey of religion-political secessionism
    印尼亞齊解放運動(Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, GAM)之研究 : 政治與宗教之分離意識
    Authors: 劉青雲;Liou, Ching-yun
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    林長寬;Lin, Chang-kuan
    Keywords: 印尼;亞齊;亞齊解放運動;分離意識;伊斯蘭國家;Indonesia;Aceh;Muslim;secessionism;Islam
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:58:14 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 南亞地區在2004年底所發生之大地震及海嘯,造成鄰近區域嚴重人命及財產損傷,使該區瞬間成為全球矚目之焦點,而區內災情最為慘重之印尼亞齊地區,則因仍處管制戒嚴狀態,致使外界對此區域長年以來所面臨之問題,產生諸多好奇與疑問。該區為伊斯蘭在馬來世界最早奠基之處,也是印尼最篤信伊斯蘭之地區,全境410萬人口中,近98.11%信奉伊斯蘭,向有「麥加走廊」(Serambi Mekkah)之稱,在伊斯蘭文化上有其特殊地位;而該區於十三世紀建立馬來世界第一個伊斯蘭蘇丹國,The Pasai Sultanate。隨後,其首任蘇丹Ali Mughayat Syah於1520-1524年統一蘇門達臘島北部,並於葡萄牙殖民勢力入侵麻六甲蘇丹國(the Melacca Sultanate)後,取代成為馬來世界之伊斯蘭經濟貿易及宗教文化傳播中心,於馬來世界俱有相當重要影響力,並有其特殊光榮歷史與傳統。
    因著亞齊地區之強烈宗教背景及文化特色等因素,故外界對亞齊之分離運動均主觀賦予宗教動機。然而,印尼為全球穆斯林總數最多之國家,伊斯蘭之強大包容性及兄弟情誼,仍無法消弭雙方歧見;此外,印尼政府近年同意該區人民所提伊斯蘭法及宗教教育等宗教訴求時,「亞齊解放運動」組織反而仍排拒停火協議及和平談判,並刻意挑釁、製造雙方衝突,顯見該地區分離運動實非單純之宗教問題,而必然參雜其他因素,而使整體問題顯得更加複雜化。
    本文採運用政治學者赫拉克里德斯(Alexis Heraclides)所提出之「分離整合模式」(Secessionism Model of Integrity)理論,將本研究內容區分為分離主義運動、中央政府、國際環境等三個研究主體,以及「分離主義之形成」、「分離主義之發展」、「中央統治之影響」、「國際干預之影響」等四個研究層面。
    本論文就該地區歷史發展之脈絡,首先探討早期亞齊國家概念之形成及伊斯蘭對該區之影響,並分析荷蘭、日本殖民政府及印尼政府統治下,該區衝突對立之成因,以及探討「亞齊解放運動」組織形成背景及發展脈絡,最後針對各方目前對本問題之處理情形進行剖析,期能由當中釐清該區分離運動之形成因素,及各研究主體間之相互關係,進而還原該分離運動發展之真貌。
    The 2004 tsunami disaster brings Aceh to the global attention to her long existing problems with the Java central government. Aceh was the entrance of Islam into the Malay world. 98.11% of the 4.1 million populations in the region are Muslims, and they have been the most pious believers in Indonesia. Because of her special status in Islamic history of the region, Aceh has been known as “Serambi Mekkah”. The first Islamic Pasai sultanate of the Malay world was established in Aceh in the 13th century. After collapse of the Melacca Sultanate, Aceh became commercial, religious and cultural centre of the Malay world. Aceh’s glorious history and Islamic traditions had great influence on the Malay world.
    Because of the special religious and cultural background, the Aceh independent movement (GAM) has always been deemed to be religious upheaval. Despite the Indonesian central government has made great concession to the GAM organization in religious affairs such as setting up a separate Islamic law system and religious educational institution, the conflicts between the former and the latter have never been settled with satisfaction. Therefore the Aceh secession appeal should not be viewed simply as a religious upheaval, but rather a multi-factor independent movement.
    This study is based on the “Secessionism Model of Integrity “theory by Alexis Heraclides to examine the relations amongst the Aceh secession movement, the Indonesian government, and the international organizations. This thesis will discuss the following themes: the consolidation of the Acehness Islamic nationhood (Darul Islam), the formation and development of the GAM, the influence of the Indonesian domestic policy and administration system, and the participation and influence of the NGOs.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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