Tourism has been developed since the colonial period in Bali, though there were many obstacles and frustration in the process of the development. Nowadays, the number of tourists who visit Bali every year is over two millions. Meanwhile, these tourists not only bring much revenue to the Indonesia Government, but also make the Balinese have more income than other Indonesian. Hence, Bali is like a hen that can lay golden eggs to Indonesia.
At the beginning of Independence, there were over eighty percentages of working population who live on agriculture, and the revenue of Bali was mainly from the export of agricultural products. Also, there was not revenue from tourism at that time. However, after two decades, the Indonesia Government makes the tourism income as the Bali’s main revenue and Bali as a world-famous resort or a paradise in the eyes of the western people. Therefore, there must be some reasons why Bali has this kind of achievement today, for example, tropical environment, unique culture resource, and tourism policies. Bali would not have the opportunity and capital to develop tourism, and become the most shinning star among Indonesia Archipelago if there were not policies to support it. Consequently, the goal of this thesis is to analyze how Bali tourism developed, with special focus on the political and economic reasons.
With the point of view of development, the “politics-economy” method is used as the research structure to analyze the development process and mode of Bali tourism in this thesis. The research range of this thesis is set to study the development of Bali tourism in one special period, which is divided into three phases: Dutch Colony period (1840~1942), the First five-Year Development plan period (1969~1974), and the well developed period (1975~2002).
This thesis emphasizes on the following aspects: the background and history of the development of Bali tourism, the tourism resource of Bali, the environmental restriction and policies of the development of tourism, the dominance of foreign capital, and the impacts and changes which tourism brings.
Hence, this thesis contains five chapters:
Chapter one is the preface. This chapter primarily describes the research motivation, bibliography reviewing, definition of tourism, and research theories.
Chapter two studies the historical background of the development of Bali tourism. The range of the time includes Majapahit Empire period, Dutch Colony period, the Independence of Indonesia period, and President Soeharto period. These four periods start from 1515 and end at 2003.
Chapter three analyzes the policies of Bali tourism. The key points of this chapter are to analyze the developmental process of tourism policies and the economic conditions under each four phases. Moreover, this chapter tries to analyze the importance of the other elements that influence the development of Bali tourism.
Chapter four analyzes the impacts which tourism brings to Bali. The development of tourism brings not only positive but negative impacts to Bali in each three phases. Meanwhile, I also look at how the government and the local people face these impacts.
Chapter five is the conclusion. This chapter integrates every development element of tourism in previous chapters, and explains why Bali tourism can develop into the scale and form the structure today.