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    Title: 從落難之地到渡假天堂 : 峇里島觀光產業的政治經濟分析
    Other Titles: From a shelter to a paradise of tourists : the political economy analysis of tourism on Bali island
    Authors: 陳聲元;Chen, Sheng-yuang
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    林欽明;Lin, Chin-ming
    Keywords: 峇里島;觀光;Tourism;Bali
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:58:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 印尼獨立初期,峇里島上的勞動人口超過百分之八十是從事農業耕作,全島的主要收入是農業產品的出口,毫無觀光收入可言,但印尼政府如何在短短數十年間讓觀光產業成為峇里島的最大收入來源以及使她成為世界知名的觀光勝地或是西方人眼中的Paradise呢?這箇中的原因除了峇里島本身熱帶自然景觀優美、獨特的文化資源外,觀光政策的制定也是相當重要的原因之一。如果沒有政策上的支持與制定,峇里就不會有資金去發展觀光事業、更不會成為印尼最耀眼美麗的一顆星,因此本文要探討為何峇里島觀光產業會發展到如今的盛況,主要以政治和經濟發展的因素加以探討。
    本論文所採用的理論架構是以社會學理論中的“政治經濟”法並加上發展的觀點來分析峇里島觀光發展的模式與脈絡。研究範圍主要為研究某一段時間內峇里島觀光產業發展的始末,該時間範圍分為三大階段,第一階段是荷蘭殖民時期(1840~1942),第二階段為第一個五年發展計劃時期(1969~1974),第三階段則是蓬勃發展時期(1975~2002)。
    本論文的重點主要放在幾個方向上,主要是峇里島的觀光發展背景與歷史、峇里島本身所具有的觀光資源優勢、觀光發展的大環境限制與政策制定、外資的進入與控制、觀光所帶來的各種衝擊與改變。
    第一章為緒論。主要是論述研究背景、研究動機、文獻回顧、觀光之定義與解釋、相關研究理論與方法。
    第二章為峇里島觀光發展之歷史背景。研究時間範圍主要從峇里島上的滿者伯夷王朝(Majapahit Empire)時期、荷蘭殖民時期、印尼獨立時期、蘇哈托執政時期到現代,年代範圍起訖為1515年到2003年為止。
    第三章為峇里島觀光政策與發展之分析。觀光發展政策在三個不同階段的演變以及觀光發展下的經濟分係是該章的探討重點,並試圖透過該章分析主導峇里島觀光發展中各個因素的重要性。
    第四章為觀光發展對峇里島之影響。觀光發展所帶來的有正面與負面的衝擊,而在三個不同的階段中這些正負面衝擊有哪些?執政者或政府當局、以及居民又是如何處理這些衝擊?
    第五章為結論。本章綜合前幾章所論述峇里島觀光發展各方面之探討,然後再去解釋、歸納出為何峇里島觀光發展到至今這種局勢與結果。
    Tourism has been developed since the colonial period in Bali, though there were many obstacles and frustration in the process of the development. Nowadays, the number of tourists who visit Bali every year is over two millions. Meanwhile, these tourists not only bring much revenue to the Indonesia Government, but also make the Balinese have more income than other Indonesian. Hence, Bali is like a hen that can lay golden eggs to Indonesia.
    At the beginning of Independence, there were over eighty percentages of working population who live on agriculture, and the revenue of Bali was mainly from the export of agricultural products. Also, there was not revenue from tourism at that time. However, after two decades, the Indonesia Government makes the tourism income as the Bali’s main revenue and Bali as a world-famous resort or a paradise in the eyes of the western people. Therefore, there must be some reasons why Bali has this kind of achievement today, for example, tropical environment, unique culture resource, and tourism policies. Bali would not have the opportunity and capital to develop tourism, and become the most shinning star among Indonesia Archipelago if there were not policies to support it. Consequently, the goal of this thesis is to analyze how Bali tourism developed, with special focus on the political and economic reasons.
    With the point of view of development, the “politics-economy” method is used as the research structure to analyze the development process and mode of Bali tourism in this thesis. The research range of this thesis is set to study the development of Bali tourism in one special period, which is divided into three phases: Dutch Colony period (1840~1942), the First five-Year Development plan period (1969~1974), and the well developed period (1975~2002).
    This thesis emphasizes on the following aspects: the background and history of the development of Bali tourism, the tourism resource of Bali, the environmental restriction and policies of the development of tourism, the dominance of foreign capital, and the impacts and changes which tourism brings.
    Hence, this thesis contains five chapters:
    Chapter one is the preface. This chapter primarily describes the research motivation, bibliography reviewing, definition of tourism, and research theories.
    Chapter two studies the historical background of the development of Bali tourism. The range of the time includes Majapahit Empire period, Dutch Colony period, the Independence of Indonesia period, and President Soeharto period. These four periods start from 1515 and end at 2003.
    Chapter three analyzes the policies of Bali tourism. The key points of this chapter are to analyze the developmental process of tourism policies and the economic conditions under each four phases. Moreover, this chapter tries to analyze the importance of the other elements that influence the development of Bali tourism.
    Chapter four analyzes the impacts which tourism brings to Bali. The development of tourism brings not only positive but negative impacts to Bali in each three phases. Meanwhile, I also look at how the government and the local people face these impacts.
    Chapter five is the conclusion. This chapter integrates every development element of tourism in previous chapters, and explains why Bali tourism can develop into the scale and form the structure today.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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