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    Title: 日本出入境管理制度之研究 : 兼論與國際人權文書之關係
    Other Titles: Research of the management of Japan's entry and exit control : and the relationship concerning it's documentation of international human rights
    Authors: 呂銀鋒;Lu, Ying-feng
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士在職專班
    胡慶山;Hu, Ching-shan
    Keywords: 日本憲法;出入境管理;世界人權宣言;公民權利和政治權利國際盟約;外國人人權;出入境限制;The Constitution of Japan;Entry and exit control;Universal Declaration of Human Rights;International Covenant On Civil and Political Rights;Human rights of foreigners;Entry and exit limit;日本国憲法;出入国管理;世界人権宣言;公民の権利と政治の権利国際盟約;外国人の人権;出入国限制
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:57:57 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 今日社會堪稱為交通極度發展的時代,再加上國際間各種交流與經貿往來日益頻繁,使得人民跨越國境的遷徙與移動已是稀鬆平常,甚至已成為日常生活的一部分,因此入境、出境伴隨而生的法律問題就接踵而至。一般而言,憲法都會規定人民有居住、遷徙之自由,旨在保障人民有自由設定住居所、遷徙、旅行,包括入出國境之權利。除一般各國的憲法規定之外,在人權日益成為國際間的共通價值之後,此等權利亦於國際公約中加以規定。但各國在處理日益增加的入出境問題時,通常會因國家的情況而有不同的做法。日本如何管理此一問題乃為本論文的主要課題。
    本論文的第一章是緒論,主要是在第一節中討論研究動機與目的,第二節是文獻探討,第三節則提及研究方法與研究限制,第四節則說明章節安排與研究步驟。第二章則討論日本出入境管理制度的沿革與發展,第一節探討日本出入境管理制度之沿革,第二節探討出入境管理制度之現狀,第三節探討日本出入境管理制度的特色。
    第三章則討論日本國民的出入境自由,其中第一節討論從日本憲法相關法理,以基本人權為出發點,探討日本國民的入境自由。第二節則討論日本國民的出境自由。第四章則提及日本對外國人的出入境管理問題,其中第一節討論出入境問題與外國人的基本權利,第二節討論外國人的入境與限制。
    第五章則討論國際人權文書對出入境問題的討論,其中第一節討論國際公約在日本的法律地位,第二節討論國際人權文書有關出境的相關內容,第三節探討國際人權文書有關出境的相關限制,特別是公民權利與政治權利國際盟約允許的限制。此一權利對外國人關係重大,如涉及地主國採取特定的作為驅逐外國人時,即屬於程序保障的問題。將外國人驅逐出境,必須根據法律所做的決定,而原則上應給予遭驅逐出境外國人抗辯機會,且容許專業法律人士為其代表。倘如驅逐過程構成對人權之侵害,則縱使驅逐行為具有合理基礎,亦是違反國際法之行為。基於此種規定,地主國於驅逐外國人時,應有義務提出將其驅逐的理由。
    第六章則為結語。出境、入境的自由程度,往往關係到一個國家民主發展的程度,各國的入出境管理制度是否合理,甚至是否會無理限制公民出境或回國而侵犯人權,亦成為判斷該國為民主國家或獨裁國家的指標。前蘇聯流放其國民的事例歷歷在目,其中包括獲得諾貝爾獎的索忍尼辛、沙卡洛夫等。猶記得台灣早期常聽到的「黑名單」,那就是統治台灣的政府言稱為維持社會秩序所必要,而以動員戡亂時期國家安全法第三條第二項第二款關於入境限制之規定,限制持不同意見的本國國民入境的問題。目前台灣的憲法雖然明文保障人民有居住及遷徙之自由,國際人權文書更特別規定任何人有出入境境的自由,但台灣在過去與現在均有許多違反人權的規定,除以黑名單禁止異議份子返國之外,由於政府自身的國家定位不明,使得台灣護照在外國經常遭到困難,導致許多國人在出入他國時窒礙難行,這些都涉及人權保障問題。
    關鍵詞:日本憲法、出入境管理、世界人權宣言、公民權利和政治權利國際盟約、外國人權、出入境限制。
    Nowadays transportation is well developed, international affairs and trading business is frequent, all these make immigration and going abroad very common, it''s even becoming part of our life. So the legal question from entry and exit of the country arises. Constitutional law gives people the freedom of residence and movement, in order to protect our right of choosing where to live, move, travel and go abroad. Besides the constitutional law, the right of going abroad is also mentioned in international treaties. But the way of dealing with the question of immigration differs from country to country. The management of Japan is our subject.
    The first chapter of our essay is the introduction, the first section of this chapter talks about the motive and the goal, the second section is about the study of documentation, the third section is concerned with the way of study and limitation of research, the forth section explains the arrangement of chapters and our steps of study. The second chapter talks about the evolution and development of regulation of entry and exit control in Japan, the first section talks about the evolution of entry and exit control, the second section talks about the current status of entry and exit control, the third section talks about the characteristic of entry and exit control of Japan.

    The third chapter then talks about the freedom of Japanese citizens to go abroad, the first section is based on the basic human right and from the point of theory of law of the Japanese Constitution to talk about the liberty of Japanese citizens.The second section discusses the liberty of Japanese citizens being able to exit the country.In chapter four we talk about the entry and exit control for foreigners in Japan, the first article we discuss the entry and exit control and basic right of foreigners, the second article talks about the immigration and limit of foreigners.
    The fifth chapter is about the discuss of international document human right concerning of entry and exit the countries, the first section talks about how Japanese law concerns international treaties, the second section is about the content of going abroad in International Human Right document, the third article talks about the limit of going abroad in International Human Right documents.
    The sixth chapter is the conclusion. The level of freedom to enter or exit a country concerns the development of democracy. Besides not allowing political dissidenters to come back to Taiwan because of the black list, the position of Taiwan is not clear, so owners of Taiwanese passports have trouble overseas from time to time, this also concerns about problems of human rights.
    Appears in Collections:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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