從九０年代開始，日本國內大企業紛紛將生產據點移往中國等海外地區，加上國內面臨高齡化社會、日本年輕人不願從事3K業種，承包商無法應付發包商在成本或品質上的要求以及企業本身無法開創出新事業領域等因素之下，許多生存在外包制度裡的中小企業被迫縮小生產規模、歇業甚至倒閉。就在這「消失的十年」之間，企業創業率的下降及失業率的持續升高等統計數據說明了日本製造業群聚的確陷入了長期的低迷狀態。 另一方面，在這些疲軟的群聚地中，仍舊有不少的中小企業為了存活下來，企圖改變既有的經營模式，如開發特有的生產技術、提高產品研發能力等等，以開創新的事業契機。除此之外，日本政府方面也為了振興地方經濟與提升地方中小企業的競爭力，推動了「地方產業群聚活性化法」、「產業群聚計畫」等法令政策，希望藉由這些法令政策的推動，改善群聚地原來的經營環境，使群聚地能發揮原有的機能與效果。 本論文從Marshall及關滿博的理論觀點，探討日本製造業群聚近幾年來的動向與變化之外，並以新瀉縣長岡地區為研究案例，進一步分析當地中小企業所面臨的經營環境變化以及如何藉由經營改革，重新整合群聚內部的分工結構與活用原有的群聚優勢。 本文除第一章緒論、第五章結論外，共分三章。第二章為整理各學者對產業群聚的觀點;第三章除了探討1985年至2000年期間，日本各主要群聚地的變化之外，亦分析分析製造業中小企業在交易結構上或經營策略上的變化;第四章則是以新瀉縣長岡地區為事例，分析中小企業的經營改革與群聚機能之間的關連性。 Big business in Japan has transferred its production bases to overseas countries including China one after the other from nineteen-nineties. Besides, the aging society has been coming, and young people dislike participating in dirty, dangerous, and hard work. The subcontractor has not been able to accomplish all requests from the prime contractor, and also created new business. Due to these above conditions, the small and medium business blessed with Japanese contract system was forced to reduce the production scope or shut down. During the disappeared ten years, the statistic data such as a decline in start-up and a rise in unemployment has proved that industrial agglomeration has encountered the long-term economic depression. On the other hand, in these being exhausted agglomerations, a lot of business attempted to change their management model by developing their unique production skill or creating a new business chance in order to survive there. Besides, the Japanese government also promoted a series of policies in order to improve the environment of management around the agglomeration and make the best use of the advantages of agglomeration. Being based on the above motives, the thesis’s purpose is to research the condition and changes of the industrial agglomeration in the past decade from Marshall and SEKI Mitsuhiro’s theory; and further, this thesis intends to analyze the management environment of the small and medium business, and how did the business make use of the division relation in agglomeration by changing business model. Besides the first chapter is the preface and the fifth one is the conclusion, this thesis is divided into three parts as following: the second chapter is to introduce the various viewpoints of scholars about agglomeration’s functions; the third chapter is to discuss the changes on transaction and management of the business in agglomeration from nineteen eighty-five to two thousand; and the fourth chapter is to analyze the relation between business innovation and external economy for Nagaoka area in Japan.