本論文以孝明天皇及松平容保為中心來解析幕末的文久、元治時期錯綜複雜的京都政局，並透過朝幕關係的轉換過程的分析這一角度以深入探討幕末維新史。時間範圍方面，筆者以文久二年（1862年）～元治元年（1864年）的第一次長州征伐為時間範圍，探討當時的中央（京都）政局與朝幕關係。第一章先講述孝明天皇的登場及幕末時期的時代背景，第二章則介紹會津藩主松平容保的經歷以及擔任京都守護職之前的過程；第三章～第五章為本論文的核心部份，主要論述當時政權如何轉移到京都以及其後的展開。 At the Bakumatsu, the authority of the Edo shogunate weakened gradually by foreign pressures. At this time, the authority of the Imperial Court rose , and Emperor Kōmei ''s political movement began. On June 3, 1853, the Imperial Court began to take part in politics. Tozama -daimyo also began to insist on their own will , and became stronger. After the Black ships came to Japan, the old system of the Edo shogunate began to disintegrate. This is when Emperor Kōmei appeared in the historical stage at the end of the Edo shogunate . The isolation of the past was broken down by the coming of commander Perry in his fleet of Black ships. The invasion of the foreign powers became a big threat to Emperor Kōmei and the Imperial Court in Kyoto. In 1862, the Edo shogunate created the post of Kyoto Shugoshoku (Kyoto Military Commissioner) to keep the peace in the city of Kyoto. Matsudaira Katamori was the 9th daimyo of the Aizu han and the Kyoto Shugoshoku during the Bakumatsu period. The appointment of Kyoto Shugoshoku made Katamori appeared in the center stage at the end of shogunate political situation, as the fate of the Aizu han and Katamori began sloping downward leading to a tragic fall. This thesis appoints Emperor Kōmei and Matsudaira Katamori who was the post of Kyoto Shugoshoku, and clarifies a complex Kyoto political situation of the Bunkyū and Genji era at the Bakumatsu. This thesis consider this as one aspect of the Bakumatsu’s history of the restoration in the relationship between the Imperial Court and Edo shogunate at the Bakumatsu. The time frame of interest is from 1862 to 1864 and the relationship between the Imperial Court and Edo shogunate at the Bakumatsu is examined. In Chapter 1, it introduces Emperor Kōmei and the historical background. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, it introduces a brief history of Matsudaira Katamori who was the daimyo of the Aizu han and the post of Kyoto Shugoshoku. Chapter 3 from Chapter 5 is the center of this thesis, that which describes the shift and the development of the political power in Kyoto.