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    題名: 日本における育児と仕事との両立問題ヘの対応 : 多様就業型ワークシェアリングを中心に
    其他題名: A study issue on the problem of childcare and works in Japan : focusing on multi-employment work sharing
    日本因應育兒與工作兩立問題之研究 : 以多樣就業型工作共有制為中心
    作者: 陳萌芽;Chen, Mung-ya
    貢獻者: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士班
    馬耀輝;Ma, Yao-huei
    關鍵詞: 育兒休業;育兒與工作兩立;工作共有制;多樣就業型;緊急對應型;Law for Leave on Child-raising;Work sharing;Emergency solution;Multi-employment;Raise children while holding a job;Unemployment
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:56:05 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 日本因少子高齡化的原因恐造成勞動人口不足之虞,而期望女性加入勞動市場,但阻礙婦女就業的主要因素為育兒問題。為因應此問題在1992年4月制定「育兒休業相關法律」。自實施以來至今已有十餘年,依「平成15(2003)年女性管理基本調查」的結果,女性使用育兒休業制度的比例為73.1%;雖比14年度高出9.1%。但依據平成16(2004)年「第三回二十一世紀出生兒縱斷調查」僅35%的母親有工作,沒有工作的母親占64.4%之多。因此得知育兒與工作不能兩立的問題依然相當嚴重。另一方面男性的育兒休業取得率僅0.44%,企業導入育兒休業制度為61.4%。
    因育兒休業制度的效果不彰,日本政府注意到在歐洲實施的工作共有制(work sharing)。歐洲各國在經濟不景氣時,以工作共有制改善失業問題。在歐洲所實施的工作共有制當中,由勞方與資方共同協定實施的德國、以法律明文規定的法國是將工作共有制作為改善失業的緊急對策。而由政府、勞方、資方所共同合意的荷蘭是以中長期為目標、促進短時間工作型態為中心的多樣型工作共有制。
    日本在2002年正式導入工作共有制,並以「多樣就業型」與「緊急對應型」為主軸。其中「多樣就業型」有助於婦女在育兒與工作的兩立。依據調查期望短時間工作型態者,以小孩在小‧中學的女性最多。因此多樣就業型工作共有制有助於婦女在育兒與工作兩立的可能性,易言之,能促進婦女勞動力增加的可能性。
    In Japan, a country that is known for minimum children and senior population, the two factors that make the country in lack of working population, is now turning to expect its female population participate in the labor market, a move that would see child raising as a major barrier. To deal with the issue, in April 1992, the country implemented Law for Leave on Child-raising. The Heisei 15 (2003) Female Management Basic Survey on the decade-old law shows a leave-on-child-raising rate of 73.1% among females that suggests a 9.1% growth compared to the result of the same survey made in Heisei 14. However, the Heisei 16 (2004) the Third Vertical Survey on Newly Born in 21st-Century indicates that only 35% of the mother hold a job and as many as 64.4% of the mothers do not. The survey reflects a still critical issue of females’ inability to taking care of their children while holding a job at the same time. On the other hand, only 0.44% of males takes leave on child raising and 61.4% of businesses are affiliated to the leave-on-child-raising system.
    Owing to the unsuccessful leave-on-child-raising system, the Japanese government is aware of the fact of work sharing in Europe. When Europe is troubled by economic recession, working sharing is implemented to solve unemployment. In the work sharing system of Europe, Germany has the labor and the capital abide by an agreement and in France, work sharing is a legislated practice and the government takes it as an emergency measure when it comes to solving unemployment. In the Netherlands, where the government, the labor and the capital are equally willing to work for a mid-and-long-term goal of creating short-term jobs as center of the multi-employment work sharing.
    When Japan formally introduced the work sharing system in 2002, multi-employment and emergency solution were key elements. Multi-employment helps females raise children while holding a job and this is common among females preferring short-term jobs as they have children in elementary and middle schools. That is to say, multi-employment work sharing does help females raise children while holding a job. In another word, it helps create more female labor.
    顯示於類別:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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