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    Title: 日本少子高齢社会における労働市場の研究
    Other Titles: Study of the Japanese labor market under the influence of lower birth rates and an aged society
    日本少子高齡社會下勞動市場之研究
    Authors: 范敏慧;Fan Min-hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士班
    洪振義;Hong, Cheng-yih
    Keywords: 少子高齡化;勞動市場;勞動力人口;depressed birth rate and aged society;Labor market;labor force;少子高齢化;労働市場;労働力人口
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:55:11 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來,隨著女子的高學歷化及對於結婚•生子價值觀的變化,日本全體的出生率大幅降低,除此之外,生活條件的改善與醫療技術的進步,死亡率也大幅降低 ;日本的少子高齡化正以很快的速度進行中。政府當局十分擔心因人口減少、勞動力減少以及勞動力高齡化所造成的勞動力不足會間接造成了儲蓄能力降低、投資能力降低、經濟成長率低下、社會保障費負擔的增加、現役勞動者的所得低迷等中長期對經濟成長的壞影響等等的問題。
      於此情況下,為了能夠減輕國民的社會保障負擔、使經濟活性化、確保勞動力以及增加未來社會的棟樑,使未來有更多的人投入社會經濟的勞動力成為必要的課題,因此,如何活用現今沒有被有效利用的勞動者是政府當局不可輕忽的。
      本論文針對近年日本少子高齡化問題所伴隨而來的勞動力不足問題,考察促進高齡者、女性、年輕人、外國人等進入勞動市場的重要性及現狀,列舉出日本政府截至目前為止為了吸引他們加入勞動市場的政策、法制,並探討此類政策、法制的效果,檢討不足的部分。改善方案方面,參考荷蘭、瑞典、德國等歐美諸國的勞動力政策方向,考察促進他們就業、支援勞動參加等政策,進而提出幾個日本政策制度不足部分的解決方案。
      為了使各勞動者加入勞動市場,筆者將其結論建議建構在整備對於各勞動者而言擁有較健全的勞動雇用環境之上。諸如在宅勤務、勞動時間的短縮及彈力化、部分工時勞動等等較有彈性的工作方式。除此之外,保育制度的整備、育兒休業制度的充實、男性的育兒參加、能力開發機會的提供以及就職的支援等等亦是不容忽視的課題。期望今後經由這些政策的改善以及雇用環境的重新整備得以促進各勞動者加入勞動市場。
    In recent years, a higher proportion of highly educated women and changes in attitudes towards marriage and raising families have caused the birth rate in Japan to drop. Simultaneously, better living conditions and advancements in medical technology have resulted in lower death rates. Japanese society is rapidly becoming a depressed birth rate and aging society. The Japanese government''s concerns about the labor shortage have intensified, due to the decline in its population and the aging of its decreasing labor force. These phenomena further impede Japan’s ability to save and invest, resulting in a poor economic growth rate and low incomes. These circumstances create a heavier burden on social security and have negative mid- and long-term impact.
    Given the circumstances, if Japan seeks to alleviate its social security burdens, revitalize its economy, guarantee an adequate labor force, and cultivate future talent, it must place more importance on the building of a future labor force. Therefore, it is inevitable that the issue of integrating laborers that have not been introduced effectively into the current market has become a central issue.
    This thesis discusses scarcity of labor in Japan that arises from its depressed birth rate and aging society, as well as the significance of employment practices regarding the elderly, the young, women and foreigners. It also lists the policies and regulations that Japan has formulated, and explores their effectiveness and flaws. Comparisons are made to related labor policies aimed at stimulating employment in the Netherlands, Sweden, and Germany. Finally, several suggestions are posed to amend the inadequacy of Japanese policies.
    In hopes of attracting more working people to enter into the labor market, I have based my closing recommendations on providing a better and more thorough hiring system. For example, workers can be offered more options, such as teleworking, shorter and more flexible working hours, and part-time positions. Other issues that cannot be overlooked include improveming child care access and maternity benefits, encouraging active male participation in child care, providing skill development opportunities and employment assistance. I hope to bring more workers into the labor market through the improvement of government policies and hiring environments.
    Appears in Collections:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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