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    Title: 勞工基本權界限理論之研究 : 以日本國憲法為中心
    Other Titles: The study on the limit of labor rights : centered on Japan constitution
    日本国憲法における労働基本権利の研究
    Authors: 周雨潔;Chou, Yu-chieh
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士班
    許慶雄;Hsu, Ching-hsiung
    Keywords: 勞工基本權;團體交涉中心主義;加盟制協定;政治罷工;labor rights;constitution;standards of Judicial Review;労働基本権利;政治スト;同情スト
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:54:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 資本主義自由經濟體系下,大多數的人在產業革命及工業化的過程中,成為資本家所雇用的勞工。勞工靠勞動力賺取薪資維持生存,而資本家則透過資本累積的方式大量且快速的獲得利益。基於資本主義中的契約自由原則,經濟上占優位的資本家便能自然而然的掌握一切訂定勞動條件的主導權,單一且弱勢的勞工根本無法與之對抗。資本家為了獲得最大的利益,常不惜以犧牲勞工健康及生命安全的方式來節省生產成本。在勞動條件持續惡化的情況下,不僅危害到個別勞工生存的權利,甚至進而擴大貧富差距,導致階級的對立及社會的不安。

    日本雖由國家最高法--憲法明文保障勞工基本權,然而由於該國歷史文化、政治環境及勞工意識等背景的特殊性,使其勞工基本權在實際運作上與憲法條文間的有著相當程度的落差與矛盾,亦擁有許多與先進歐美各國相異的特色存在,以上種種的問題點及特異之處正是引發本論文研究動機的主要原因所在。

    另外,有關限制該權利的法律規定本身是否具有合理性,限制的對象、範圍及程度又該如何尋求適切的審查基準,亦為本論文研究之重點。在團結權方面,著重探討加盟制協定與工會統制權的合理性及其運作的相關問題。至於團體交涉權方面,則主要是探討該權利是否可以成為私法上具體請求權的問題。而爭議權方面,則是針對各種具爭議性之罷工型態,試圖明確其保障範圍及基準。
    Under the free economic system of capitalism, most people became the labors hired by the capitalists during the process of industrial revolution and industrialization Labors earn a living to survive by the means of labor force while the capitalists make quite abundant and rapid benefits by the means of accumulating capitals. Based on the freedom of contract, the capitals can take greater advantages economically and seize the predominant right to make all labor conditions; therefore, the labors would be in a weaker position compared to the capitalists, and in the end fail to resist the capitalists. Capitalists often resort to sacrifice the health and the life safety of the labors to conserve the production cost with a view to gaining the most profits. Therefore, it makes the labor conditions keep going from bad to worse, which not only damages the survival rights of each individual labor, but also enlarges the distance between the poor and the rich, and in the end causes the antagonism among the classes and the insecurity of the society.
    In Japan, the basic labor rights is being protected under the highest law – constitution; however, due to this country’s individual background of history, culture, political environment and labor consciousness, the labor rights is not being practiced as how it should be practiced in the constitution. These also make Japan’s situation of labor rights different with other developed western countries. These problems mentioned above are the main reasons which caused the motive of this dissertation.
    Appears in Collections:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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