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    題名: 日本眾議院選舉制度變革之研究 : 對政黨與政治運作之影響
    其他題名: The research of representatives electoral system elevation : the effects to political party and politics
    作者: 許秉初;Hsu, Ping-chu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士在職專班
    胡慶山;Hu, Ching-shan
    關鍵詞: 小選舉區制;大選舉區制;小選舉區比例代表並立制;惜敗率;五五體制;first past the post system;multi-member district system;first past the post with Proportional Representation System;close-game index;the party system of 1955;小選挙区制;大選挙区制;小選挙区比例代表並立制;惜敗率
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:54:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文係以日本眾議院新選舉制度為研究之核心,探討日本在其民主化過程中,選舉制度所扮演之角色,日本為讓選舉制度更臻完善,自一八八九年起至一九九四年止,共計針對其眾議院選舉制度進行了十四次之修改,甚至於一九九三年,因選舉制度等政治議題之改革,導致自由民主黨之宮澤喜一內閣下台,結束該黨長達三十八年之長期執政,日本政治上所謂「五五體制」亦至此宣告結束,過去百餘年來日本先後實施過小選舉區制、中選舉區制、大選舉區制及目前實施之小選舉區比例代表並立制,其主要目的係為建構一套更公正、公平、優質之選舉制度,讓其政治更清明,讓選民對政治更有信心。
    然而,現行之小選舉區比例代表並立制,仍然存在可重複登記參選、票票價值不相等、農村代表過剩等問題,整體而言,仍未完全擺脫過去中選舉區制之陰影,現階段日本之政界在實施眾議院新選舉制度之後,僅勉強達到兩大黨數小黨之境界,距達成像英、美等國之兩大政黨制目標仍有相當遙遠之距離。
    目前日本眾議院議員選舉所實施之小選舉區比例代表並立制與德國國會現行之小選舉區比例代表並用制,各有其優缺點,對欲引進兩票制之中華民國政府而言,全盤抄襲渠等之選舉制度,有百害而無一利,因此,我政府僅能汲取日、德兩國選舉制度之優點,做為我們訂定一套能夠達到簡化選舉程序、促進兩黨政治之形成、兼顧民意與專業之目標的立法委員選舉制度之參考,但一套理想之選舉制度必須與社會之主流民意相結合,與時俱進,方能可長可久,讓台灣社會更加民主、人民之生活更加幸福、社會更具活力。
    The Essay is focused on the new election system of Japanese House of Representatives'' to find out the roles of election system in Japan democratic Progress. To perfect the electoral system, Japan had mended its election system of the House of Representatives 14 times since 1889 till 1994. In 1993, some political issues, included the reform of election system, eventually led Prime Minister Miyazawa Kiichi to resign and ended the Liberal Democratic Party'' 38-year-old reign, as well as the so-call"55 system(the party system of 1955)".During the past century, Japan has tried small, medium and large sized district systems, currently "First past the post with Proportional Representation System", to constitute a fair and better system which is expected to improve Japan''s political environments and make voters trust the politics.
    However, the "First the post with Proportional Representation System" still has some problems, including multiple candidacies, unequal value of each vote, excessive Representatives from farming areas, etc. In whole, the latest election system still suffers from some legacies of the mid-sized district system and merely sets up a "two major plus small parties" political system, far from two dominant major parties like those in the U.S.A. and U.K.
    When compared Japan''s election system with similar Germany system, it is hard to tell which one is better. It might be inappropriate for Taiwan to introduce either system without some modifications. Taiwan should learn from both systems and find a proper way to fit into Taiwan''s situation. At last, it shall come to our attention that an ideal and everlasting election system must meet the majority''s opinion to make politics more democratic, and people happier.
    顯示於類別:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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