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    題名: 日治初期臺灣地方衛生行政 : 以衛生組合為中心探討
    其他題名: The local hygienic administration in Taiwan in the early period of Japanese colonial rule : focusing on the Eiseikumiai
    作者: 中山善史;Nakayama, Yoshifumi
    貢獻者: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士班
    富田哲
    關鍵詞: 衛生組合;鼠疫;臺灣社會領導階層;在臺日本人;自治組織;Eiseikumiai;Plague;Taiwanese local elites;Japanese people in Taiwan;the local organization;衛生組合;ペスト;台湾人紳士層;在台日本人;自治組織
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:54:31 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   19世紀末之近代醫學的發達,尤其是顯微鏡、細菌學的發展使得引發傳染病的微生物因而被發現,從此確立了傳染病之治療法及預防法。日本統治殖民地臺灣正是細菌學的發展時期。日本佔領臺灣之前已遭遇到傳染病的流行,因此日本領臺後,醫療衛生在殖民地統治上成為重要的政策。領臺第2年之鼠疫的流行,對日本人而言亦是前所未有的傳染病,因此為了解決傳染病問題,進行了強制預防的措施,不過因為日本人與臺灣人的醫療衛生觀念不同,強制措施導致臺灣人對於總督府的醫療衛生措施產生反感,鼠疫防治對策面臨了困境。臺灣總督府於是利用長久以來臺灣的社會領導階層,灌輸他們防疫措施的重要,並設置衛生組合,試圖透過衛生組合普及臺灣人基層社會的公共衛生。
      衛生組合是1889(明治19)年於日本國內正式制度化的民間衛生團體,灌輸民間衛生思想,使民間積極參與衛生事務,保持自己居住地的清潔,進而預防傳染病蔓延的組織。臺北鼠疫流行以後,由各地臺灣社會領導階層及在臺日本人陸續設置衛生組合,總督府則期待衛生組合能夠扮演官民之間橋樑的角色。
      不過,至1901(明治34)左右,有些日本人的衛生組合以地方自治團體為目標成立「內地人組合」,將衛生事務移交給此團體,但由於一些日本人的有力者們相互之間爭奪權力等因素,造成此團體不僅衛生事務,連地方事務亦漫不經心,不久便宣告解散。另一方面以社會領導階層為主要成員的臺灣人的衛生組合以捐款的方式積極參與衛生事務,但他們基於中國傳統觀念來進行之衛生事務措施與總督府所推展的近代西洋醫學全然不同,因此臺灣人的衛生組合也不具有普及公共衛生的功能。
      The end of 19th century, modern medical science became advanced, especially the microbe which cause infectious disease to be discovered, and the cure preventive method of infectious disease was established by the development of microscope and bacteriology. It was a time period of establishment of bacteriology when Japan colonizing Taiwan. Before Japan colonizes Taiwan, Japan was encountered infectious disease in Taiwan; after Japan colonized Taiwan, medicine and hygiene politics in Taiwan became to be important policy. But an epidemic of Plague in 2nd year after Japan colonized Taiwan, was also unknown infectious disease to Japanese, performing compulsion hygiene measure for in order to hold down that although, but it was caused antipathy of Taiwanese from the difference of medical hygienic conception between Japanese and Taiwanese, the Plague measure had a rough going; accordingly Taiwan “Sotokufu” (Governor-general of Taiwan) used the Taiwan local elites from Qing Dynasty, and help them to develop an understanding about prevention measure, and established “Eiseikumiai” (the Health Department), “Sotokufu” tried to familiarize public hygiene through the Health Department.
      The civilian group was established in Japan by 1889, which does hygienic work. It was an organization that educates hygienic idea to people, participates in hygienic work to people actively, or keeping the living area cleanliness in order to protect against infection. After an epidemic of Plague in Taipei, “Eiseikumiai” was installed one after another by Taiwan local elites and Japanese influential people in Taiwan at every place, “Sotokufu” expected “Eiseikumiai” as the intermediary between the government and people, and familiarizing to people public hygiene.
      Around 1901, the part of Japanese “Eiseikumiai” , aiming at the local autonomy, was formed“Naichijinkumiai” (the local organization), transferred hygienic work there. but the part of Japanese influential people contended for the power to the “Naichijinkumiai”, because of it, hygienic work and local work became to negligent, and it had dissolved before long. On the other hand, the local elites of Taiwanese “Eiseikumiai” participate in hygienic work by contribution the money actively. But it was totally difference between doing the hygienic works by Taiwanese local elites and the public health which “Sotokufu” tries to familiarize in Taiwan, the “Eiseikumiai” did not become the supporter of the familiarizing of public health.
    顯示於類別:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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