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    Title: 戰後日本國小道德教育研究
    Other Titles: Research of the moral education of Japanese primary school in the postwar years
    Authors: 顏嘉慧;Yen, Chia-hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士在職專班
    馬耀輝;Ma, Yao-huei
    Keywords: 道德教育;學習指導要領;心靈筆記;國小;教育敕語;Moral Education;Learning Instruction Guideline;Spiritual Notebook;Primary School;Education Decree;道徳教育、学習指導要領;こころのノート;小学校;教育勅語
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:53:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 台灣於民國九十年開始實施九年一貫教育後,道德教育便融入七大學習領域而消失於教科中。然而根據台北市國小品德教育實施現況研究發表(2006)顯示,目前台灣在道德教育上所面臨的困難大致為:沒有合適實施的時間、沒有合適的教材、家長配合度低等。
    此一現象促使筆者想進一步瞭解與台灣文化背景相似的日本,在資訊發達的二十一世紀,是如何因應時代的衝擊,執行道德教育。本論文主要研究目的有三:(一)探討日本戰後道德教育的演變過程(二)日本小學校道德教育政策─如設置道德時間(三)了解現行日本小學校道德教育執行方式─如心靈筆記製作發送、透過體驗活動學習等。研究方法則採以文獻分析法為主,藉由戰後道德教育相關法令,並輔以其他相關道德教育研究文獻、作一探討。
    從研究中發現日本道德教育歷史久遠,從學制頒布,正式國民統一教育施行以來就開始實施道德教育。明治初期立身、治產與興業為目的,未受重視。直到明治12年(1879年)頒布教育令後,才將道德列入正式必修科目。道德教育真正受到重視是在「教育聖旨」頒布後,不但被列為必修學科的首位,也特別編撰符合日本國情的修身教材『幼學綱要』,作為授課教材。「教育聖旨」頒布後,卻引起保守與開明派之間產生極大的爭議,直到明治22年「教育敕語」頒布為止,才使德育論爭畫下句點,至此道德教育已轉為培育國家所需要的公民的工具。
    二次世界大戰後,日本在聯軍總司令部管理下,道德教育一度在教科中消失。之後因昭和27年(1952年)簽訂「舊金山對日合約」,及當時青少年不良行為嚴重等因素,日本文部省在昭和33年(1958年)修訂學習指導要領,特設道德時間,以加強道德教育,這可說是戰後道德教育時間特設的起點。道德時間特設後,學習指導要領至今共經歷四次的改訂,但在內容上並未出現太大差異。
    在整個研究過程中,筆者發現日本道德教育共有下列幾個特色,(一)道德時間的設置(二)道德教育指導、輔助資料豐富(三)道德教育會依實際需求作彈性修訂(四)各項教育統計資料完備,利於掌握現況修正政策五)在進行各項政策時,政府各部會相互呼應與支援(六)重視家庭教育、提供有育兒煩惱的家長溝通及諮詢場所。雖然日本政府會因應時代需求將道德課程作調整與檢討,但是在道德教育上仍有幾項待克服的課題,有待努力。如授課教師師資、課程安排、家庭與社會的配合度問題等,同樣的這些課題也是目前台灣在道德教育上所面對及必須努力克服的重點。
    Since the grade 1-9 curriculum program was implemented in 2001, moral education has been integrated in the seven major learning fields and disappeared from the instruction subjects. However, in accordance with the demonstration of the studies concerning the current situation of primary-school ethics education in Taipei City (2006), it shows that the difficulties encountered in Taiwan’s moral education are generally a lack of adequate implementation time, lack of adequate instruction materials, and low accommodation levels from parents, etc.
    This situation has prompted the author to further understand how Japan, which shares a similar cultural background with Taiwan, responds to the impact of a 21st century with developed information technology, and how it administers its moral education. The paper has three major study objectives: (1) Explore the transformation of moral education in post-World War II Japan, (2) explore moral education policy in Japanese primary schools – such as the establishment of ethics time, and (3) understand the moral education implementation method in current primary schools in Japan – such as the preparation and distribution of spiritual notebooks, learning through experience activities, etc. A literature analysis method is adopted as the main study method, in researching the related laws of moral education after World War II, and it is aided by other related moral education research journals.
    From the research it is found that Japan has a long history of moral education, implemented since the promulgation of the school system and enforcement of formal unified national education. In the initial period of the Meiji era, personality formation, property establishment and industry development did not receive much attention, and morality did not become a mandatory subject until the promulgation of the Education Act in the 12th year of the Meiji Era (1879). No real attention was paid to moral education until the promulgation of the “Imperial Decree of Education”; it was not only selected as the first mandatory subject, but also as a “Guideline of Junior Education” of moral practice in conformance with the situation in Japan, and as a teaching handout. After promulgation of the “Imperial Decree of Education”, there was much contention between the conservative and liberal sectors, and this moral education dispute did not end until the promulgation of the “Education Decree” in the 22nd year of the Meiji Era, when moral education became a civil cultivation tool necessary for the nation.
    In Japan, following World War II, under the management of the GHQ (General Headquarters) of the Joined Forces, moral education once again disappeared from the textbooks. Later, in the 27th year of Showa Era(1952), due to such factors as the signing of the “Treaty of Peace with Japan” and the seriously poor juvenile behavior at that time, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan revised the Learning Instruction Guideline in the 33rd year of Showa’s Era (1958), specially arranging ethics time to strengthen moral education, able to be considered as the specially arranged starting point of moral education time after World War II. Since the special arrangement of ethics time, the Learning Instruction Guideline has been revised four times, but with little difference in content.
    Throughout this study, the author finds moral education in Japan to have the following few features in general, (1) arrangement of ethics time, (2) rich instruction and guidance information in moral education, (3) flexible revision of moral education will be provided in response to actual requirements, (4) comprehensive information concerning various education statistics, facilitating control of current situation and revision of policies, (5) mutual response and support of various government agencies in the engagement of each policy, (6) attention to family education, providing communication and consultation for parents with concerns in child care. Although the Japanese government adjusts and reviews the moral curriculum in response to current public requirements, there are still several issues to be overcome in moral education and calls for further effort. For example, such issues as faculty availability of instructors, curriculum arrangement, family and community accommodation levels, etc., which are also the key points to be faced and overcome in Taiwan’s moral education.
    Appears in Collections:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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