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    題名: 日本の産業「空洞化」についての研究
    其他題名: 日本產業空洞化之研究
    The analysis of Japanese industrial hollowing out
    作者: 阿部美智代;Abe, Michiyo
    貢獻者: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士班
    任燿廷;Jen, Eau-tin
    關鍵詞: 產業空洞化;產業結構;全球化;第三產業;海外直接投資;對日直接投資;產官學;產業群集;Hollowing out;Industrial Structure;Globalization;Tertiary industry;Foreign Direct Investment;Foreign Direct Investment into Japan;Industry-Academia-Government Collaboration;Industrial Cluster;産業空洞化;産業構造;グローバル化;第三次産業;海外直接投資;対日直接投資;産官学;産業クラスター
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:53:09 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 回顧日本的經濟,自1990年初泡沫經濟形成以來,至2000年初,日本的經濟仍持續低迷。究其原因,日本產經各界各有著不同的看法,大致上例如: 不良債權、土地及股價的下滑及財政金融政策的失敗等等,均為造成景氣低迷之因。
    日本受到亞洲各國廉價勞動成本的強勁競爭下,近年來日本企業轉往海外生產的比例漸漸增加。而海外生產的比率已由當初1990年的6%,以倍數成長之姿到2000年已達到14.5%,2005年成長更高達16.7%,相較於上個年度成長近0.5%,創下過去以來的最高紀錄。
    以業種別來看的話,特別是身為日本經濟發展龍頭的電器機械和汽車等運輸機械工業、資訊通信機械、精密機械等。其轉往海外生產的比例近年更是不斷上昇中;另一方面,在化學、鋼鐵、纖維等產業陷於長期低迷景氣下,也不得不縮小日本國內生產規模。而由於日本產業在不斷地外移之下,造成日本國內雇用比例也越來越低,漸成為產業「空洞化」的最大隱憂。根據一份產業現況調查顯示,日本企業將產業移往海外的主要原因,是因亞洲各國的廉價勞動力、租金及成本誘因,造成日本產業大量外移。
    此外,亞洲各國在日本的直接投資下,刺激各國經濟呈現高幅度的成長,更因生產據點直接設立在各國,日本的投資由開發NIEs(新興工業經濟體)開始,接著擴展到中國及東南亞國協等,而開發亞洲第三產業的趨勢,也漸成為日本在考量提升服務業生產性的新課題。
    本論文中主要探討日本為加強其產業競爭力,與亞洲各經濟體系的緊密的關係,及對於日本第三產業發展、企業海外直接投資所面臨全球化經營為研究焦點,概觀產業構造及闡明產業空洞化及其機制,並針對各項問題尋求對策。
    Reviewing the Japanese economy, we can state that in the beginning of the nineties economy was in a rather bad condition and it continued keeping this weak form until the year 2000. Examining the reasons for this, each sector of the industries’ economy has its own perspective on things which are more or less as follows: unsupportive credit-rights, the decrease of land and stock values and furthermore the failure of the finance and monetary policy. These are all equally responsible for the depression of the economic boom.
    Japan endures the powerful competition of the low-priced labor cost of various countries in Asia, during the last years the proportion of Japanese companies going overseas for production purposes gradually increased. Apart from that, the percentage of production abroad back in 1990 (6%) was exceeded twice only 10 years later in 2000 (14,5%) and kept growing ever since. In 2005 the rate was as high as 16.7% and during the last fiscal year even topped that by 0.5 % which is the all-time peak so far. Each business section has to be looked at separately especially when it comes to the leading businesses in Japanese economic development such as: electrical machinery, automotive industry, the telecommunication sector and precision engineering. The production in overseas of the above mentioned increased constantly, whereas the domestic production for chemical engineering, the metal and fiber industry had to be diminished since they have been in a low tide for a long time. Besides, because of the constant moving of production sites out of Japan the rates of staff hiring is also decreasing, a worrisome ‘hollowing out’ is taking place. According to a recent survey on Japanese industry, main reasons for leaving Japan are not only the low labor costs in other Asian countries but also other factors such as low rent and low material costs make it a very attractive option.Moreover, since Japan started to invest into the Asians countries by building production sites, they also helped the local communities in those nations to take advantage of the additional chances the Japanese brought along, e.g. increasing job market. The first markets which benefited from the Japanese investments were the NIEs. Later the concept was expanded on to China and South East Asia.
    Besides, the trend of opening the tertiary industry in Asia also had a big influence on Japan, boosting its own tertiary industry. The Japanese tertiary industry used to be quite insensible to foreign industrial influences. But once having noticed the high standards of other foreign countries on that matter, the Japanese understood they need to have the same candidness thus hoping to improve the situation.
    顯示於類別:[日本研究所] 學位論文

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