|Abstract: ||世界經濟朝全球化、知識經濟化進展中，海外直接投資是企業全球布局中不可或缺之事業活動，而如何活用世界資源，如何保有競爭力將是企業今後之課題 。豐田汽車是第一家淨利潤超過一兆日圓之日本企業，豐田汽車如何培養如此之收益體質及建構競爭優勢，是本論文探討之動機。|
本論文中，首先說明野中郁次郎和竹内弘高（2006）所提倡有關企業內部知識創造之4個知識變換過程所產生之「知識創造螺旋」 、R．Camagni(1991) 所提倡有關集聚知識創造之開放型集聚學習之「創新集聚」、A. Saxenian（1994）針對美國矽谷及波士頓近郊128號公路之集聚比較研究結果及Y.Doz、J．Santos 、P．Williamson（2001）提倡藉由海外直接投資而接近世界各地之知識創造之「metanational approach」經營策略，並究明這些理論與知識創造及創新之關聯性；最後以豐田汽車之事業活動及海外直接投資所展開之全球布局進行案例研究後提出結論。
根據本論文之實証分析，豐田汽車在世界26個國家設置製造據點，經由接近世界各地而建構察覺之構面（ the sensing plane）；且豐田汽車不僅生產甚至研究開發亦在海外進行布局，經由這些布局創造生產、行銷及研究開發之創新經營體制而建構營運之構面（ the operating plane）；再則經由高度化之資通訊應用將各海外事業據點及人才的優勢集結、融合而建構融合之構面（the mobilizing plane），進而創出最適全球布局之開放型創新之經營體制。本論文之結論，豐田汽車確實朝Y.Doz（2001）提倡之「metanational approach」經營策略；另豐田汽車採取活用當地優勢知識之研究開發策略，豐田汽車經由在美國進行高級轎車、在德國進行F1、在泰國進行新興國家車型等研究開發、並將當地之優勢知識集結於日本，而日本則朝「環保、節能、安全」等主題進行研究開發，並將日本此等研究開發知識擴散至世界各地。本論文亦建議，為達到「metanational 經營」之境界 應針對融合世界各地知識之組織建構或環境營造重新思考，另為建構迅速且彈性之研究開發體制，有必要活用企業外之資源。
As globalization and transformation into a knowledge economy have become the prevailing paradigms for the world economy, foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an essential role in a company''s global strategic deployment. Companies today face several challenges: how to wisely use global resources, and how to maintain competitiveness. The primary goal of this paper is to examine how Toyota Motor Corporation – as the first Japanese company to surpass 1 trillion Yen in profits -- nurtures and maintains its profitability, and how it built its competitive edge.
With the emergence of the knowledge economy, the source of a company''s core competitiveness does not lie in bringing higher efficiency associated with lowering costs, developing markets, and forming a labor supply chain; rather, it is found in innovation, which is brought about through ''knowledge creation''. Moreover, the sources of knowledge needed for innovation are not only found in the developed countries of Europe or the United States – these knowledge sources are distributed throughout the world. Companies should not only put their efforts into organizations and clusters dedicated to knowledge creation. These companies should make use of FDI to collect knowledge, bring different kinds of knowledge together, and internalize the resulting new knowledge so that it becomes an energy that can fuel innovation.
This paper starts with a review of literature on knowledge creation, industry clusters, and business operations. I first look at Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi''s (2006) concept of internal knowledge within companies: the "knowledge creation helix", which is composed of four alternating processes of knowledge. I then provide an overview of "innovation clusters", which are described by R. Camagni (1991) as based on an ''open'' model of learning that drives knowledge creation within an industry cluster. This is followed by a look at A. Saxenian''s (1994) comparison of industry clusters in Silicon Valley and Boston''s Route 128, and then the "metanational" approach proposed by Y. Doz, J. Santos, and P. Williamson (2001), which proposes using foreign direct investment as a global strategy to bring companies closer to knowledge creation sites scattered all over the world. With this literature review, I examine these theories and their connections to knowledge creation and innovation. Finally, I offer my conclusions by presenting a case study of Toyota Motors'' global strategic deployment as revealed through the company''s business activities and foreign direct investment.
This paper''s presents an analysis of Toyota''s business operations within a "metanational" framework, which Doz et al. characterize as organized around a company''s "sensing plane", "operating plane", and "mobilizing plane". Toyota used its manufacturing operations in 26 countries to become closer to knowledge sites from all over the world, in effect building its "sensing plane". This global strategic deployment not only consists of production bases, as the company also conducts research and development (R&D) overseas. Toyota''s "operating plane" is composed of an innovation/business operations framework that encompasses production, distribution, marketing, and R&D. And through the use of upgraded, high-level information technology applications, Toyota gathered the competitive advantages of its overseas operations bases and personnel, fusing them together to form its "mobilizing plane." Using these elements, Toyota created the most suitable business operations framework possible for open innovation within its global strategic deployment. This paper thus concludes that Toyota indeed used the "metanational" approach as outlined by Doz (2001). In addition, Toyota has adopted R&D strategies that represent a smart approach to using the best local knowledge. Some of Toyota''s R&D endeavors include the production of high-class sedans in the US, the formation of a Formula 1 team race in Germany, and the development of a car in Thailand geared toward emerging economies. Also, Toyota has gathered the best of its collected local knowledge in Japan, and applied this knowledge to R&D related to major areas of concern in the country: environment, energy-efficiency, and safety. The end-result has been for Toyota to distribute this knowledge gained from its R&D efforts in Japan all over the world. This paper also suggests that to reach the level of "metanational operations", new thinking is needed with regard to organizations and environments that fuse together knowledge collected from all over the world. In order to rapidly build a flexible R&D system, companies must adopt a smart approach to utilizing resources that lie outside of their traditional realm.