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    Title: 1980年代後日本小學的體驗活動之推展與實踐 : 以志工活動為中心
    Other Titles: The promotion and practice of experience activity in Japanese elementary schools after 1980s : focus on the volunteer experience
    1980年代以降日本小学校の体験活動の推進と実践 : ボランテイア活動を中心に
    Authors: 沈淑娟;Shen Sue-chuan
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本研究所碩士班
    闕百華;Chueh, Pai-hua
    Keywords: 體驗活動;志工活動;中央教育審議會答詢;生存能力;奉獻活動;綜合學習時間;教育課程定位;學習指導要領;Taste activity;volunteer activity;submit report of Central Education Council;exist ability;contribute activity;composite learning time;orientate of education course;gist of learning and guiding;体験活動;ボランテイア活動中央教育審議会答申;生きる力;奉仕活動;総合的な学習の時間;教育課程の位置付け;学習指導要領
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:51:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來日本都市化及少子化的問題造成社會上人際關係的淡化,因為整個大環境與社會型態的改變導致日本兒童與學童缺乏豐富的成長。由於現代的都市化社會型態導致學童在家庭中或在學校裡缺乏與各種不同的人或大自然還有與社會直接的接觸機會。日本政府在兒童缺乏社會、自然等體驗機會的背景下積極致力於在學校教育中推動體驗活動。體驗活動相關政策提出包括了四次答詢:○1 1996年中央教育審議會第一次答詢 ○2 1998 年教育課程審議會答詢 ○3 2000年教育改革國民會議報告 ○4 2002年中央教育審議會第二次答詢。關係法令的整備主要有(1)學校教育法的修正(2)社會教育法的修正
    體驗活動與各教科之關係,各教科有各自的目標,並且各自具有教育內容及指導方法特色;但是要達成小學教育目標還是需要互相配合。體驗活動與各教科的關係是相輔相成,並且互相配合帶來更大的學習效果;才能使體驗過的事物和學習過的事物更加穩定更加一般化。
    體驗活動的類型可以細分如下:志工活動等社會奉獻相關體驗活動、大自然相關體驗活動、勤勞生產體驗活動、職場或就業相關體驗活動、文化或藝術相關體驗活動、交流相關體驗活動。
    本論文分為序論、本論、結論三個部份。序論的部份包括研究動機與目的以及研究方法與研究範圍說明論文的構成。本論的部份分為三章。第二章的部份主要是詳述體驗活動推動過程中的各項相關政策與法令的形成背景。主要內容以中央教育審議會的答詢、小學指導要領的修正還有學校教育法與社會教育法等法案的修正過程。第三章則是說明體驗活動與各教科之間的關係,其中包括提升教職人員在體驗活動方面的資質還有推動體驗活動的過程中面臨的問題都會詳加說明。本論的最後一章是以某學校為例說明體驗活動的類型與實踐、還有實踐成果;以論文標題的志工活動為主軸,另外再選兩種比較重要的體驗活動類型詳做說明。在結論的部份,將對體驗活動的現況包括特色與課題做說明,並且提出體驗活動的實施評價。最後提出自己的意見作為對台灣小學的啟示。
    In the recent years, the interpersonal relationship has been weakened in the Japanese society due to the rapid urbanization and the trend of low birth rate. The changes in the social environment limit the Japanese children and school kids to develop rich experiences when growing up. The urbanization leads to the situation that children are lack of the opportunities to directly touch with different people, the natural environment, and the whole society during the time they spend at home and school. For this reason, the Japanese government actively promotes experience activity through the school education system. The reports of the experience activity related policies have been submitted in 4 times: (1) The first report of the Central Education Council in 1996. (2) The report of the Curriculum Council in 1998. (3) The National Commission on Educational Reform report in 2000. (4). The second report of the Central Education Council in 2002. In addition, the major regulations that have been built up include: (1) The amendment to the School Education Law. (2) The amendment to the Social Education Law.
    As to the relationship between the experience activity and different subjects in the curriculum, each subject has a distinct objective, which specifies the content and the characteristics of the guiding principles. Therefore, it takes the integration of each subject to achieve the purpose of elementary school education. For school children to have better learning results, experience activity and the subjects in the curriculum should complement to each other and be incorporated. Consequently, this would stabilize and generalize the learning experiences.
    The experience activities can be categorized as followings:
    - The experience activity of volunteer works.
    - The experience activity of the nature environment.
    - The experience activity of production
    - The experience activity in the career and working environment.
    - The experience activity of culture or art.
    - The experience activity of inactive experience
    This report is composed of three sections including Preface, Main Contents and Conclusion. The Preface section specifies the motivations of research, the objectives, the methodologies, the scope of topics, and the structure of the paper. In addition, the Major Contents section comprises three chapters. The first chapter details the background of which the associated regulations are formed in the process of promoting experience activity. The major discussion covers the reports submitted by the Central Education Council, the amendment to the guiding principles of elementary schools, and the amendment process of the School Education Law and Social Education Law. The second chapter explains the relationship between experience activity and each specific subject. The discussion contains the enhancement of the quality of education faculty and staff in experience activity, and the problems encountered during the promotion process of experience activity. The last chapter illustrates the categories, implementation, and performance results of experience activity, taking s specific school as example; It centers on the topic of the paper, experience activity of volunteer activities, and uses the other two important categories as supplemental illustrations. Finally, in the Conclusion section, it presents the current situation of experience activity, including the characteristics and the issues, evaluates the performance of experience activity implementation, and proposes the author’s opinions to the future development of elementary schools in Taiwan.
    Key word : Experience activity, volunteer work, report of Central Education Council, viability, existence ability, contribution activity, composite learning time, position of education, learning guideline, guiding principle
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of Japanese Studies] Thesis

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