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    題名: Problemática de los indígenas en Ecuador
    其他題名: 厄瓜多爾原住民問題之研究(1990~2002)
    The problem of indigenous people in Ecuador (1990~2002)
    作者: 陳非凡;Chen, Fei-fan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    韋淑珊;Andrés, Susana N. Vittadini
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:50:17 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在拉丁美洲大陸這塊土地上,居住著不同部落的原住民。原住民在沒有外界打擾、過著自己生活型態的同時,屬於他們原住民特有的文化也因應而生。然而,殖民時期過後,拉丁美洲原住民同胞逐漸地失去他們原有的資產,以及他們在拉丁美洲大陸土地上的「重要性」。同時,原住民亦漸漸淪落為被殖民者剝削、鄙視及分化的角色,這些負面影響從殖民時期一直持續的伴隨著他們到至今。
    厄瓜多爾三分之一的總人口是由原住民所組成,但是絕大多數的人口皆過著貧困的生活。因厄瓜多爾的原住民是社會中的弱勢族群,職之是故,該屬於他們享有的福利,常被少數掌有政治權限的人在協商、交易中所犧牲。也因如此,厄瓜多爾原住民的生活狀況每況愈下,難有翻身的機會。
    二十世紀末對於原住民來說是個邁向光明的關鍵時期,原因在於「厄瓜多爾原住民民族聯盟」(CONAIE)及「帕恰古蒂克」(Pachakutik)的成立,為原住民帶來嶄新的希望。「厄瓜多爾原住民民族聯盟」(CONAIE)是由厄瓜多爾原來三個不同地區的舊原
    住民組織所組成,其主要目的在於重新整合原住民的勢力,並了解原住民之所需、解決原住民的問題。
    厄瓜多爾原住民運動的發展於一九九0年到二00二年到達高峰,原住民在「厄瓜多爾原住民民族聯盟」(CONAIE)的帶領下,傳達了他們的需求及對現況的不滿給政府。在每一次的原住民運動中,原住民提出了其主要訴求並期許政府能做出適當的改革。事實上,原住民所關切的是他們的經濟狀況,一旦政府不能夠為其改善,原住民便利用示威、遊行的方式來要求總統下台,此種現象在二十世紀末造成了厄瓜多爾國內政治局勢的動盪不安。原住民同胞的力量明顯足以影響政治,不容忽視。例如:二00二年的總統選舉,原住民所支持的盧西歐‧古提雷斯(Lucio Gutierrez)在大多數原住民的支持下順利當選總統,而原住民盼望新任總統的當選能改善原住民的弱勢地位,並順利解決其問題、給予他們嶄新的未來。
    In Latin America exist many native indigenous groups and they had their particular way of life without any other intromission meanwhile they created their own cultures.Nevertheless, after the colonial rule, the natives lost little by little their things and their importance within Latin America society has been diminished, at the same time, their role has been undressed, despised and disorganized, and such state of things still continues at present.
    In Ecuador, the aborigines constitute one third of the total population, but they pass their life with poverty, in addition, their benefit has always been ignored and sacrificed by their government who is concentrated in the hand of the minorities. According to this, the problems of the natives became serious and without been yet solved. The end of twentieth century is the most important period for all the Ecuadorian indigenous since the foundation of CONAIE and Pachakutik as they bring hope for them. CONAIE is integrated by the three oldest indigenous organizations within the three different zones therefore the main function of CONAIE is to rearrange the force of the natives and also to attend to their necessities and try to solve the problems that they have.
    The indigenous movements reached their highest point from 1990 to 2002, under the control of their organization CONAIE to show their dissatisfaction and necessities to the
    government. During each indigenous movement, they propose their main demands and hope that the government can make the possible transformation. In fact, the economy of the
    natives is their most important issue and if the government does not improve their economic situation, they use the manifestation to request the destitution of the president, for that reason by the end of the last century the politics in Ecuador has been shaken and unstable.
    The natives have the power to influence politics, as it was the case of 2002 presidential election, when they supported to the candidate Lucio Gutiérrez and hoped that he could solve their problems and bring a good future for them.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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