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    Title: 墨西哥原住民的權利追尋:以薩帕帝斯塔民族解放軍與政府關係為中心(1994–2004)
    Other Titles: Mexican indigenous in pursuit of the rights : focus on the relationship between the Ezln and the government (1994-2004)
    Authors: 黃仲一;Huang, Chung-yi
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    白方濟;Pérez, Francisco Luis
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:50:14 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1994年「薩帕帝斯塔民族解放軍」(西班牙文縮寫為EZLN)於恰帕斯州發動武裝抗爭,其後挾著發言人馬可士的個人魅力,持續利用資訊戰和社會網絡戰等等新的社會運動形式,企圖扭轉墨西哥社會既有的族群關係,爭取本應屬於國內原住民的失落的權利。傳統的族群關係表現於被殖民者(或被統治者、弱勢族群、奴隸、農民)和殖民者(或統治者、強勢族群、資本家、地主)的接觸之中;另根據聯合國「原住權利宣言草案」的共識,原住民權利包含了認同權、自決權、文化權、財產權及補償權。

    本文旨在探討EZLN與薩利納斯、塞迪約、福克斯三任執政者之間的互動關係,希望藉此理解1994年到2004年之間墨國原住民權利的轉變,並提及了拉丁美洲殖民歷史以及獨立後國家原住民政策對現今原住民問題的所造成的重要影響。1996年出現的聖安德烈斯協議以及根據此協議所形成的原住民權利及文化草案(可可帕法案)可視為近年來墨國原住民權利發展的重要關鍵,也成為EZLN和政府互動的主要文件。國會在2001年所提出新的草案版本,置換了可可帕法案中關於原住民自決權與財產權的重要字眼,此舉引發EZLN的不滿,也使雙方關係陷入停滯的狀態。政府顯然忽視了原住民的需要,EZLN的自治區卻也因此得到了相當的發展。這些重要的轉折以及更為細節的微妙變化都在本文探討之列,結論則將就EZLN與三任政府的十年關係作出一比較性的總結,確認土地就是原住民問題的核心;EZLN所引領的新社會運動正在墨西哥建立一種新的族群關係,使政府不得不在他們的壓力之下對原住民權利的議題有所讓步;最後,本文重新檢視了墨國原住民權利十年之間的理論進展與實際情況。
    In order to change the existing ethnic relationship in Mexico and fight for the lost rights originally belonged to Mexican indigenous, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (an abbreviation in Spanish is EZLN) declared war, taking advantage of the personal charisma of the spokesman Marcos and the new mode of the social movements like “Information Operations” and “Social NetWar”, on the Mexican government in the year 1994. The encounters between the colonized (or the dominated, minority groups, slaves, and peasants) and colonists (or dominant rulers, majority groups, capitalists, and landlords) reflect the traditional ethnic relationship. Besides, according to the Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people, indigenous rights contain identity rights, self-determination rights, cultural rights, properties rights, and compensate rights.

    The purpose of the thesis is in the description of the interaction between EZLN and the three Administrations in president Salinas, Zedillo and Fox, so as to understand the transition of the Mexican indigenous rights from the year1994 to 2004 under the influences of the Latin American colonial history and the indigenous policies after the Independence. The San Andrés Accords and the Initiative of the Constitutional reforms about indigenous rights and culture based on the mentioned document (the Cocopa Law) of the year 1996 are regarded as the key points of the development of the Mexican indigenous rights, and are said to be the principal documents of the interaction between EZLN and the government. The new edition of the Initiative proposed by the Congress changes the crucial words about self-determination rights and properties rights from the original one. This action unsatisfied EZLN, and froze the relationship between both sides. Obviously, the government ignored the necessaries of the indigenous’; therefore, EZLN developed their autonomous regions up to the higher level. All of these important transitions and nuanced changes are discussed in the thesis, which will make the comparative conclusion between EZLN and the three presidents’ Administrations, recognizing that the land is the nucleus of the indigenous’ problems. The new social movement lead by EZLN is building the new ethnic relationship in Mexico, pressing the government to make a concession of rights to the indigenous. Finally, the thesis reexamines the theoretic progress and the real situation about Mexican indigenous rights from the year 1994 to 2004.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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