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    Title: 查維斯政權下委內瑞拉與美國外交關係之研究(1999-2006)
    Other Titles: A study of foreign relations between Venezuela and United State in the regime of president Hugo Chávez(1999-2006)
    Authors: 蔡旻芸;Tsai, Min-yun
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    Keywords: 委內瑞拉;查維斯;外交關係;美國;現實主義;Venezuela;Hugo Chá;vez;Foreign relation;United States;Realism
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:50:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 委內瑞拉身為丁美洲最早民主化的國家,靠著穩固發展的石油經濟收入來源,帶動國家與社會整體快速發展,與美國也一直保持良好的互動。然而,隨著90 年代國際潮流的改變,拉丁美洲左派勢力崛起,造成美國在這個區域的影響力受到挑戰與威脅,而委內瑞拉正可謂是這股浪潮中最具代表性的國家之一,尤以查維斯取得政權後,委內瑞拉與美國關係更趨複雜與矛盾。同時,新興國家陸續崛起,造成國際能源需求增加,以及原物料價格上漲,使得長期以石油經濟為主要收入來源的委內瑞拉受惠良多,查維斯得以運用石油資源積極向外發展多樣化市場,並強化委內瑞拉在國際社會上的地位。委內瑞拉對外政策在查維斯上任後為因應國際體系的轉變而做了大幅度的調整,與美關係也產生相當大的轉變,因此筆者選擇以委內瑞拉為研究主體,試圖了解其在國際上之作為。

    本文採用國際關係理論中的現實主義作為主要研究方法,旨在以委內瑞拉的觀點研究其對美政策,1999 年查維斯上任後對美國之外交作為是為本論文研究重點,探究查維斯為爭取本國與拉丁美洲各國獨立自主的發展,達成拉美整合目標以擺脫對美國長期的依賴,並試圖在國際環境中扮演重要的角色。此外,筆者為此研究設下四項假設,欲應證查維斯承襲西蒙•玻利瓦爾的精神,積極推動拉丁美洲整合,將使泛拉美主義再度興起,而查維斯更善用社會資源來獲得民眾支持,成為其反美政策的一股助力。同時,查維斯也利用石油資源來擴張委內瑞拉獨立自主發展的空間,與中國大陸之密切經貿合作將對委美關係造成影響,而在本研究中筆者所預定的假設亦皆得到應證。

    在現實主義的主張中,國際社會是處於一種無政府狀態,在這樣體系中,國家必然會為了捍衛國家利益而與他國產生衝突,不過,雖然現實主義強調衝突而非合作,但為了避免或降低衝突影響國家利益的可能性,國與國之間就必須依靠權力平衡。對委內瑞拉而言,石油經濟即是國家可發揮及運用的最大權力,亦是最大的國家利益,為求生存,委內瑞拉必得增加權力資源與權力能力,進而轉與他國合作,本國利益才得以鞏固與發展。如同委內瑞拉與美國在政治上擁有衝突,卻因為經濟利益的考量而繼續密切的經貿往來。總括來說,本研究認為委內瑞拉對美政策是符合現實主義思維,結果均符合現實主義的期待。
    Since the 1990s, the international society has radically changed. The rising power of the Left in Latin America, especially in Venezuela, challenged the hegemony of United States. The oil industry has always been the main source of national income in Venezuela. Due to the raising prices of energy and raw material in these years, Venezuela gradually plays an important role in international society. The diplomatic relations between Venezuela and United States went down dramatically since Hugo Chávez was elected as president of Venezuela in 1998. He pays attention to social issues and national sovereignty, and furthermore he uses the power of oil to against Unites States.

    According to above reasons, this thesis focuses on the diplomatic relations between Venezuela and United States under the regime of Hugo Chávez from 1999 to 2006. The whole thesis is based on the perspective of Realism theory, and uses the method of comparative research. The focal point in this study is the foreign policy to United States of Hugo Chávez since 1999. Through Hugo Chávez’s foreign policy to United States, we recognize the great explanatory power of Realism, such as the national interest is the most important factor in national behavior. Therefore, the contradictory relations between Venezuela and United States may lead to more conflicts in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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