在現實主義的主張中，國際社會是處於一種無政府狀態，在這樣體系中，國家必然會為了捍衛國家利益而與他國產生衝突，不過，雖然現實主義強調衝突而非合作，但為了避免或降低衝突影響國家利益的可能性，國與國之間就必須依靠權力平衡。對委內瑞拉而言，石油經濟即是國家可發揮及運用的最大權力，亦是最大的國家利益，為求生存，委內瑞拉必得增加權力資源與權力能力，進而轉與他國合作，本國利益才得以鞏固與發展。如同委內瑞拉與美國在政治上擁有衝突，卻因為經濟利益的考量而繼續密切的經貿往來。總括來說，本研究認為委內瑞拉對美政策是符合現實主義思維，結果均符合現實主義的期待。 Since the 1990s, the international society has radically changed. The rising power of the Left in Latin America, especially in Venezuela, challenged the hegemony of United States. The oil industry has always been the main source of national income in Venezuela. Due to the raising prices of energy and raw material in these years, Venezuela gradually plays an important role in international society. The diplomatic relations between Venezuela and United States went down dramatically since Hugo Chávez was elected as president of Venezuela in 1998. He pays attention to social issues and national sovereignty, and furthermore he uses the power of oil to against Unites States.
According to above reasons, this thesis focuses on the diplomatic relations between Venezuela and United States under the regime of Hugo Chávez from 1999 to 2006. The whole thesis is based on the perspective of Realism theory, and uses the method of comparative research. The focal point in this study is the foreign policy to United States of Hugo Chávez since 1999. Through Hugo Chávez’s foreign policy to United States, we recognize the great explanatory power of Realism, such as the national interest is the most important factor in national behavior. Therefore, the contradictory relations between Venezuela and United States may lead to more conflicts in the future.