一九九九年查維茲上台後，進行大刀闊斧的改革，查維茲以「玻利瓦革命」為基礎，展開一系列的政治活動，以徹底改變委內瑞拉的經濟和社會情況為目標。由於查維茲的激進改革，觸及了國內既得利益者和美國的利益，導致委內瑞拉反查派人士發動了多次的「政變」企圖推翻查維茲政府。查維茲在經歷了多次的政治危機與風暴全身而退後，使其政權更加鞏固。二OO五年二月，查維茲提出以「二十一世紀社會主義」理念來帶領委內瑞拉走向社會主義道路，而委內瑞拉未來能否在查維茲政權的帶領下朝向社會主義道路邁進，則留待時間來檢驗。 The prosperity and decline of the Latin American left wing has close relation with the international political circumstance. The Latin American left wing rapidly expanded the unceasing prosperous time during 1950s’ to 1980s’. The Latin American left wing not only built the first socialist country- Cuba in the Western Hemisphere, but also established the Nicaraguan Sandinista’s regimes in Central America(1979~1990). The Eastern European drasticlly changed and the Soviet Union disintegrated brought out universal socialism movement and the Latin American left wing to the lowest ebb in the end of 1980s’.
The extreme change in the Latin America political circles is the re-rising of Latin American left wing in the 21st century. The characteristic of these neo-left wings is built by election, not by radical violence. The most famous neo-left wing in Latin America is Hugo Chávez’s regimes. On the day of December 6 in 1998,. Chávez’s had won the president election in Venezuela, and it inspired the re-rising of Latin American left wing. From then on, the Latin America neo-left wing is vividly appeared one after another.
After being in power in 1999, Chávez launched a series of political activities on the foundation of “Bolivar Revolution ” to take thoroughly changes Venezuelan economical and social situations as the goal. The anti-Chávez activists planned several coups to overthrow Chávez due to his radical reform. Chávez’s regimes became to be more consolidated after he overcame these political crisises. In February 2005, Chávez proposed the idea of “21st century socialism ” to lead Venezuela to move towards the socialist road. The Venezuelan political situation will be moved towards socialist road, or, not under the leading of Hugo Chávez, it needs time to examine.