|其他題名: ||The study of the human rights of Mexican indigenous|
|作者: ||林心怡;Lin, Hsin-yi|
|關鍵詞: ||人權;原住民權利;墨西哥;薩帕帝斯塔民族解放軍;Human Rights;the rights of indigenous;Mexico;EZLN|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:50:04 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||在拉丁美洲，墨西哥於許多方面均為各國的指標，然而儘管其境內的原住民人數眾多，在與其它種族相較之下，該族於政治、經濟地位與身分在社會上卻顯的相對弱勢。現今的原住民困境主要是承襲著歷史的足跡而來，由於國家長期以來對原住民權益的忽視，加以居住地區所獲得的行政資源有限，因此造成其整體社區發展相對落後、生活困苦的情況發生，主要反映在土地問題、歧視與教育問題、貧窮與邊緣化問題上。隨著原住民運動在一九七O 年代於北美洲崛起，八O 年代後，原住民族相關組織便如雨後春筍般冒了出來。而近年來，與墨國原住民相關的權利也在國際、國內上被承認。二OO 七年「原住民族權利宣言」的通過，不僅對原住民的權利提供了各方的保障，更是國際上該族權利的一大突破。而目前，與墨西哥原住民的權利也逐步在該國的憲法改革中被實現。然而，由於墨國政府決策的實施與原住民族的實際需要仍有所差距，因此，雙方的抗爭依舊持續進行著。而薩帕帝斯塔民族解放軍於一九九四年恰帕斯州的武裝起義，不僅是該國原住民勢力崛起的重要指標，更使我們深刻體會到原住民力量的不容小覷。目前，如何解決原住民所面臨的困境與其訴求，為墨國政府未來的最大挑戰。因此，本文主要以墨西哥原住民為研究對象，探討殖民時期至今該族所遭遇之困境及政府相關決策，以藉由本文了解墨國原住民現今之處境，及其於各方之要求。|
In Latin America, Mexico is index of various countries in a lot of respects. However,despite the numerous population of indigenous, their social, politics and economic status are relatively disadvantaged compared with other races. The predicament they face today is mainly comes from their history due to the neglect of indigenous rights over a long period of time. Moreover, the administrative esources are hardly got because of the remote area they live. In consequence, their communities often encounter the situation of lower development and privations. It mainly reflects on the problems of lands, discrimination, education and poverty. As indigenous movements arose in North America in 1970, organizations concerned with
indigenous group were blooming after 1980. In recent years, rights related to Mexican indigenous have also been further recognized in Mexico and all over the world. The adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007, not only offers the overall protection for indigenous groups, but also set a new standard to all the countries while dealing with the indigenous groups. At present, Mexican indigenous rights are realized step by step through the constitution reforms. Whereas, because of the differences between what the indigenous groups want and what the government gives, the confrontation of each side continues. For this reason, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation staged an uprising against the government in Chiapas in 1994. It presented the rising of indigenous peoples and made the world realize the power they had. For the time being, how to solve the problems that indigenous groups face will be the greatest challenge for Mexican government in the future. Due to this, the thesis takes Mexican indigenous as a study body and treats the predicament and government policies the groups
encountered since the period of colonization, in order to examine the situation and the rights of Mexican indigenous.