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    題名: 拉丁美洲新興左派興起因素之研究
    其他題名: The study of Latin America's neo-left's appearance
    作者: 鍾宛諭;Chung, Wan-yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成;Hui, Juan-hung
    關鍵詞: 拉丁美洲;左派;新左派;新興左派;新自由主義;Latin America;Left;New left;Neo-left;Neo-liberalism
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:50:01 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 拉丁美洲在經歷80年代「失落的十年」發展之後,90年代初期被迫宣告放棄進口替代工業化策略,轉而接受由國際貨幣基金(IMF)等國際組織提出的「華盛頓共識」,實行新自由主義經濟政策。然而,90年代中期起墨西哥、巴西和阿根廷等國接連3次的經濟金融危機的衝擊,使得拉丁美洲國家開始反思並且批判新自由主義發展模式。

    1950年代至1980年代,拉美左派曾有過興盛時期,古巴不但在西半球建立了第一個社會主義國家,在中美洲建立了具有重要意義的尼加拉瓜革命政權,而且在不少國家建立了左派政府。在反對獨裁政權、爭取民主運動中發揮了重要作用,對美國亦產生了極大的牽制和挑戰。冷戰結束後,隨著兩極格局的瓦解,世界社會主義運動受挫,拉美左派運動也隨之沈寂。

    然而,自1998年查維斯當選委國總統之後,許多拉丁美洲國家也紛紛由左派掌權,引起國際社會的關注。事實上,從拉美各國歷史發展脈絡來看,其各國政府轉向就如同一個鐘擺,冷戰後軍事獨裁政權接連在80年代垮台,繼之而起的左派,在拉美多個國家執政後也以失敗告終。90年代,幾乎所有拉美國家推行了由美國等西方先進國家主導的新自由主義經濟政策,亦無法解決問題,累積下來的財富分配不均和失業加劇、傳統政黨長期執政下造成體制僵化和貪污醜聞更在政壇蒙上陰影,又再度給予左派捲土重來的良機。

    本論文首先藉由歷史研究途徑,了解拉丁美洲左派發展的源起背景與軌跡以及未來可能發展,再使用文獻分析法和原因比較法將拉丁美洲現今左派政府執政之國家視為研究對象,提出主要影響拉美新興左派興起之因素。
    After 1980s, known as “lost decade”, the neo-liberal economic policies, or “Washington Concensus”, supported by International Monetary Fund and other western international organizations, took place of traditional import-substituting industrialization policies in Latin American countries in 1990s. However, since 1994, series of economic crisis occurred in majority of Latin American countries, as Mexico in 1994, Brazil in 1998, and Argentina in 2001. As a result, those countries began to criticize neo-liberalism and rethink its applicability.

    Latin American’s Left had passed through a silver age during 1950s to 1980s. In that period, not only Cuba became the first socialist country in western hemisphere, but also created a meaningful revolutionary political regime in Nicaragua, and established leftist governments in several Latin American countries, which had a great effect upon the anti-dictatorship and democratic movement. It also reduced the U.S. influence in Latin America. The situation changed since the disintegration of Soviet Union. The International Socialist and Latin American Leftist Movement had faced obstacle after the Cold War.

    Nevertheless, after Hugo Chávez was elected president of Venezuela in 1998, the left was expanding in many Latin American countries. In fact, as the history of Latin America, the ideology in that continent is like a cycle. During the cold war, the left appeared after the collapse of dictatorship in 1980s, but it faced the frustration in the end of same decade. In 1990s, although neo-liberal economic policies were realized in most countries of Latin America, the old problems, such as corruption, unemployment, bad distribution of wealth, could not be resolved, they were even getting worse, therefore, the left obtain another opportunity to govern this continent.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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