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    题名: 阿根廷農產品出口發展研究(1990-2004)
    其它题名: The study of argentina's export of agricultural products
    作者: 張祥儒;Chang, Hsiang-ju
    贡献者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    宮國威;Kung, Kuo-wei
    关键词: 經濟改革;世界貿易組織;農業協定;補貼;黃豆;南錐共同市場;關稅刪減;歐盟;美國;中國;Economic Reform;Soybeans;WTO;URAA;Subsidies;Mercosur;Tariff Elimination;USA;European Union;China
    日期: 2007
    上传时间: 2010-01-10 23:49:58 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   農業,在一國的經濟發展中,始終都具有非常崇高的地位,為一切經濟活動的根源。也因其重要性及敏感性,該部門普遍受到各國高度的保護,以致在20世紀後半期,國際農產品貿易紊亂,並頻出現貿易戰的疑慮。一直到第8次國際多邊回合談判(烏拉圭回合),將農產品議題納入協商,並在1994年制訂了農業協定,國際農產品貿易才獲得規範。

      阿根廷農產品出口在1990年的走向,確實受惠於農業協定,不過真正促進出口膨勃發展的,則歸功於此時期阿根廷所實行一系列的經濟改革。改革下,阿根廷經濟情勢好轉,不但激勵了農業部門的大量生產,同時亦為出口創造一個絕佳且流通的環境。同時在經濟改革及農業協定的助益下,對於幾個國際上的出口對象,包括歐盟及中國,出口量都出現明顯的成長。

      除此之外,1990年代興起的區域經濟整合浪潮,亦是刺激阿根廷農產品出口呈現正面走向的因素。1991年南錐共同市場成立後,區域內的貿易障礙逐漸撤除,貿易創造效果在阿根廷對成員國農產品出口上可明顯見到。而錐共同市場在運作後,積極與其他南美洲國家建立自由貿易協定,對阿根廷農產品在未來的出口效果,是非常值得期待的。

      然而,阿根廷農產品出口在1990年代並非始終發展順遂。自1998年起,整個南美洲經濟情勢開始倒退,再加上在2001年起,國際局勢不穩,全球景氣倒退,而在同年,阿根廷也出現金融風暴。這段期間內,阿根廷農產品也受到波及,出口量明顯衰退,直到2004年國際及本身經濟情勢趨於穩定,出口才逐漸回復往日水準。
      In the history of economic development, the importance of agriculture must not be ignored because it could be the root of any economic activity. Due to its position and sensitiveness, this sector is always highly protected, which results the disorder of international agricultural trade and some potential trade wars in the last half of 20 century. This problem was partly resolved after the GATT Uruguay Round Negotiation in which the agricultural trade liberalization and subsidies were discussed. Under the negotiation, Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture(URAA) was enacted in 1994, which was the special rule of international agricultural trade.

      Argentina’s agricultural export in 1990s benefited by URAA, nevertheless, the fundamental cause of the export jump was the series of the economic reforms realized in 1990s. The economic reform not only stimulated the commodities production, especially soybeans products, but also created an excellent condition for the export. In that period, the export to the world and some specific destinations, as European Union and China, increased dramatically. Beside the economic reforms, the establishment of Mercosur also positively affected the Argentina’s agricultural export. Now, the economic integration of majority of South American countries is in process, as a result, the growth of Argentina’s export is highly expected.

      However, the export was not expanding all the time in this period. In the end of 1990s, the economic situation in South America was getting worse, and the world economic recession in the beginning of this century seriously influenced Argentina. In the end of 2001, Argentina encountered economic and financial crisis, and the whole country lapsed into chaos. During those years, the export decreased year by year. This situation did not change until 2003, and since 2004, Argentina’s economy was recovering and agricultural export was getting better.
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