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    題名: 中美洲幫派對美國的影響-以薩爾瓦杜恰幫為例
    其他題名: The influence of Latin American gang in U.S. : case study on Mara Salvatrucha
    作者: 田兆姮;Tien, Chao-heng
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    向駿;Hsiang, Antonio C.
    關鍵詞: 薩爾瓦杜恰幫;南加州拉美幫;薩爾瓦多移民;非法移民;幫派;組織犯罪;辛那羅販毒集團;三振出局法;鐵腕政策;薩爾瓦多內戰;族裔接替理論;副文化理論;Mara Salvatrucha;Sureno;Salvadoran immigrant;Illegal immigrant;gang;Organized crime;Sinaloa cartel;Three strikes and you’re out;Mano Dura;El Salvadoran civil war;Subculture theory;Ethnic succession theory
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:49:55 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 洛杉磯(Las Angeles, U.S.)為美國的犯罪之都,幫派犯罪活動尤其猖獗。近年來,拉丁裔幫派因其地利之便快速崛起,成為美國警方頭痛的問題。薩爾瓦杜恰幫(Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13)則為1990年代崛起的拉丁裔新興幫派。由於其成員多來自受薩爾瓦多內戰影響的薩裔移民。MS-13的部份成員甚至為造成薩爾瓦多內戰的左右兩派人員,如此軍事背景,使得MS-13將幫派犯罪暴力拉至另一層級,成為更加暴力的拉丁裔幫派。MS-13蹤跡遍及美國,甚至影響中美洲國家,特別是宏都拉斯、薩爾瓦多、瓜地馬拉及墨西哥。

    本研究以薩爾瓦杜恰幫為案例,來探討美國的幫派問題。以犯罪學裡論中的副文化理論(Subculture Theory)及族裔接替理論(Ethnic Succession Theory)來解釋 MS-13的形成背影因素及其發展,從犯罪學理論的觀點切入本文。並探討造成美國拉丁裔幫派問題嚴重的原因為何?而美國為打擊幫派所制定的政策有哪些及其成效如何? 最後,再根據各項打擊幫派政策,檢視美國犯罪率是否因為這些政策的施行受到控制,及其成功與失敗的原因。
    In U.S., Las Angeles is the crime capital with many crime actions. In recent year, Latin gangs arise because of the convenience of geography. And it’s become a serious problem. Mara Salvatrucha is one of the violent Latin Gangs in 1990’s. Some of its members are Salvadoran immigrants who were influenced by El Salvadoran civil war; and some of them are members of the conflict between the government and the guerrilla. Based on the background of military group, taking MS-13 to higher level of violence. MS-13 spreads over 40 states of U.S., even influence Central America badly, specially, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico.

    This thesis talks about the gang problem through the case of Mara Salvatrucha. And use Subculture Theory and Ethnic Succession Theory as my approach to explain this phenomenon of Gang. To analyze the reason why Latin gang’s problems are so serious in U.S. Because of the bad public security, there are many anti-gang policies. The police try their best to solve the problem but the outcome is not so good. This thesis also focuses on the failures of anti-gang policies and discusses the way to improve the society.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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