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    Title: 智利國營事業民營化之研究
    Other Titles: The privatization of Chile's public enterprises
    Authors: 黃立元;Huang, Li-yuan
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    蔡東杰;Tsai, Tung-chieh
    Keywords: 智利;國營事業;民營化;Chile;Public Enterprises;Privatization
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:49:45 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1950年代以來,開發中國家基於國家發展所需,亟欲趕上先進國家的工業化步伐,主張以政府主導(State-led)的方式來帶領國家成長,強調國家角色在發達民族經濟過程中的重要性,以此目的,符合階段性戰略目標的國營事業應運而生。然則,國營事業在一次戰後一、二十年間呈現倍速增長的同時,各國政府因龐大公共部門長期受到法令的高度保護與羈絆,顯得缺乏效率、生產力低下,國營事業在面對開放性全球貿易市場的同時,暴露出競爭意識不足、應變能力較差等種種缺失。政府對於經濟的干預造成市場喪失自主調節的機制,在面臨經濟成長停滯不前的窘境下,適逢新自由主義理念的推波助瀾,使得放鬆管制、改革國營企業等目標,成為日後各國發展策略之重心。

    國營事業改革中,最廣為週知的即是「民營化」(Privatization)政策,在英國,保守黨Thatcher夫人於1979年上台後,著手推行一系列的國營企業民營化政策,成功帶動民營化的風潮,影響所至,遍及全球。開發中國家為求引進外國資金以加速經濟發展或解決外債,多將民營化視為提振經濟的良方,積極效法。同屬開發中地區的拉丁美洲,鑒於遭逢兩次石油危機的衝擊與外債負擔的日漸加劇,各國為有效解決經濟難題,將國營事業民營化視為發展策略中的一項重要措施,寄望藉由導入自由競爭與市場機制的方式,提高生產力,調整產業結構。

    智利早在1973年Pinochet執政初期,已逐步開展各項國營事業的民營化措施,成為拉美民營化改革之先聲。智利自1970年代開展至今的民營化政策,期間有著不同的階段性目標,從注重利潤回饋、分散股權到加強管理、促進競爭等,而範圍也隨著政策的推行不斷擴大,由國家傳統產業乃至交通、電力等基礎建設事業。智利民營化的初期,存在有股權過度集中等遭人詬病之處,阻礙了效率目標的達成,但智利政府逐步調整政策的健全性,著眼於民營化策略與管理架構間之互動關係,使民間部門的參與能提供最大之貢獻,並加強管理與競爭機制的維持,俾使智利成為拉美國家中民營化較為成功之範例。
    Since 1950, in order to catch up with developed nations those nations underdeveloped focused most on the way to improve competitiveness by the pattern state-led, stressed the importance of a role of government during economic development, for the reason, public enterprises were built for this strategic purpose. Nevertheless, pubic enterprises were got into scrapes due to inefficient or low productivity which have all been made through the excessive protection of government, the intervention of government has made the market losing the mechanism to control and adjust itself. Against the economic stagnation and incitation of Neo-liberalism in the meantime, every country tended to shift their strategy to deregulation and reform the public enterprises.

    The most important policy in public enterprises reform is privatization, which has been improved by the UK premier Thatcher who has ever carried out series of programs to innovate public enterprises. In order to attract foreign direct investment to upgrade economic development and solve the problem of external debt, most nations underdeveloped regarded privatization as a panacea to turn over a declining tendency. In the meantime, Latin-America have been twice attacked by crises of petroleum and the overburdening of external debt, every nation were desirous to increase productivity and shift industry structure by conducting a mechanism of free competition and market regulation.

    Chile has launched privatizing measures of public enterprises during the regime of general Pinochet, this policy started since 1973 and in each phase there were various goals like emphasizing the reward of revenue or decentralizing source of shareowners to the enforcement of management and competition improvement. In the beginning of Chile’s privatization there existed several defects to limit an achievement of efficiency such as monopoly of privatizing companies, but Chile’s governor adjusted gradually their policy, paid more attention on the interaction of privatizing strategy and the framework of management, let non-governmental sectors contribute greatly in this field, all that eventually made Chile become a successful model of privatization in Latin-America.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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