|摘要: ||杭廷頓（Samuel Huntington）指出佛羅里達州以及美國西南部一帶的「西裔化」（hispanization），特別是西南部的西語化問題成為美國民主政治以及國家認同的最大挑戰。大量的拉丁美洲人民，特別是墨西哥族群則是推動美國朝二元文化發展的力量。美國統計局資料顯示，預估到了2050年西裔族群人口總數將達美國總人口的1/4。此外，在西裔人口中墨裔族群占66.9%為多數。是故，墨裔族群日顯其重要性。本論文針對墨西哥裔族群，探討該族群在美國社會上的發展史，如何與美國主流盎格魯白人相處，彼此間互動關係又如何。隨歷史發展美國族群關係理論的變化，同時建構出墨裔族群的認同感，其認同的累積和鞏固，終於在60年代爆發奇卡諾運動。|
Samuel P. Huntington argued that the hispanization in Florida and Southwest, particularly the hispanization in Southwest would be a real challenge for the United State in terms of promoting democracy and national identity. High Latin American immigration, especially from Mexico, affects the bicultural development of the United States. According to the report of U.S. Census Bureau, it is estimated that the population of Hispanics may increase largely, and it will reach almost 25 percent of the total population in U.S. by 2050. In addition, among the Hispanics, two-thirds (66.9 percent) are of Mexican origin. Therefore, the existence of Mexican-Americans becomes gradually more important. This thesis focuses on the Mexican American ethnic group, and investigates the historical development of that ethnic group in the United States, as well as exploring the interaction between Anglo-Americans and Mexican-Americans. Over time, the theories of ethnic relations have changed, and the identity of Mexican-Americans have developed. As a result, the Chicano Movement arose in the 1960s.
By analyzing the history of Mexican-Americans, the researcher investigates the interaction between Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans. It could be divided into three periods. First, the development of Mexican American culture in Southwest and their conflict with Anglo-Americans after 1848. Second, the Mexican Revolution started in 1910 and the Great Depression broken out in 1930; during this period, the Mexican-American group changed their mind as well. Third, after WWII and the Bracero Program, the 1940s to 1960s were a crucial period in the development of this ethnic group. In 1960s, it started the Chicano Movement, and then the researcher analyzed both of the impacted factors which influencing the formulation of the movement and the leaders of the movement. Next, the researcher analyzed and investigated the processes of the Chicano Movement and the power of identity after the Chicano Movement erupted.
Finally, the researcher explored the influences of the movement on the aspects of politics, education, and culture; particularly on the aspect of how the people expressed their appreciation of their culture. The researcher also inspected how to strengthen Chicano ethnicity by using aestheticism.