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    题名: Trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights and access to pharmaceuticals in Latin America
    其它题名: 與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定對拉丁美洲國家獲取藥物之影響
    作者: 余仲達;Yu, Chung-dar
    贡献者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    韋淑珊;Andrés, Susana N. Vittadini
    关键词: TRIPS;藥物;FTAs;柔性條款;智慧財產權;愛滋病;世界貿易組織;開發中國家;TRIPS;Pharmaceuticals;FTAs;Flexibilities;Intellectual Property;HIV/AIDS;WTO;Developing Countries
    日期: 2007
    上传时间: 2010-01-10 23:49:36 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 二十世紀的科技轉變使科學在許多科技領域得到了史無前例的發展。尤其是在醫療以及藥物這兩個領域,治療愛滋病、氣管炎以及瘧疾的藥物和基因研究的新發現都代表著在這兩領域的重大突破。這些戲劇性的進展使開發中國家對於能夠得到妥善治療的願望燃起了新的希望。可是到現在為止對於開發中國家的人民而言事實並非如此,可治療及可預防的疾病每年還是奪取數以百萬人民的生命。如今即使有了在科學以及科技上的重大突破,在世界上還是存在著令人無法接受的不平等待遇,尤其是開發中國家與已開發國家的人民可獲得的醫療品質及水準。

    由上述可知,身為開發中地區的拉丁美洲以及加勒比海都面臨著巨大的挑戰。對這些貧窮國家的人民而言獲得非專利的便宜藥物是對於改善他們公共衛生的必要步驟,因此了解開發中國家有什麼應對措施來抵抗藥物產業濫用智慧財產權是非常重要的。本論文的目的是要解釋拉丁美洲與加勒比海地區的國家,使用與貿易有關的智慧財產權協定所賦予的柔性條款,以改善他們國家的公共衛生所碰到的困境。並且在南南體系經濟合作的架構下分析拉丁美洲國家和其他第三世界國家在使用柔性條款時所共同碰到的困難,最後提供了以南南經濟體系地區合作框架來解決此難題的建議。
    The technological transformation of the 20th Century had the effect of advancing the frontiers of science in many technological fields. In the medical and pharmaceutical field, in particular, major technological breakthroughs have been witnessed including the mapping of the human genome, antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and the second line treatments for tuberculosis and malaria. These dramatic developments have provided increasing hope for the realization of the right to health in the developing world. For the people in these regions, however, the reality on the ground is the opposite; treatable and preventable diseases continue to kill millions a year.

    Today, despite significant scientific and technological developments, there continue to exist unacceptable inequalities in the health status of people between developed and developing countries as well as within developing countries. In this context, Latin America and the Caribbean, being a part of the developing world is also facing great challenges. Access to essential medicines is critical in this part of the world, it is important to understand what is being done to resist intellectual property rights abuse in the pharmaceutical sector. The objective of this study is to explain the obstacles Latin America and the Caribbean are facing in using the flexibilities inherent in TRIPS to seek access of medicines for their citizens, and also suggest some recommendations on how to overcome these obstacles through a south to south regional framework.
    显示于类别:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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