淡江大學機構典藏:Item 987654321/30623
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    题名: 智利老人年金制度改革研究
    其它题名: A research of pension reform in Chile
    作者: 林文彥;Lin, Wen-yen
    贡献者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀;Chen, Hsiao-chuan
    日期: 2005
    上传时间: 2010-01-10 23:49:33 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 隨著人口趨勢不斷的老化,高齡化社會來臨,接踵而至的是有關老人的相關問題,包括老人經濟安全、醫療、照顧等……,而當中又以其老人經濟安全保障為最重要的一環。而以往所謂的福利國家,面臨如此人口趨勢的挑戰,其財政入不敷出,也不得不改弦更張,將其老人年金制度做改革;相對於,已開發國家人口老化已相當嚴重的情況,開發中國家所面臨的危機似乎是在未來,但為因應已確定的趨勢,就必須提早未雨繆綢,提早做出改變。
      智利的老人年金制度,在一九八一年即進行了全面的改革,將隨收隨付制改革成儲金制,且完全私有化,政府只做好監督與制定法規的角色;而這個制度所強調的是個人權利與義務相對概念,每個人在退休後或進入老年前,都要在其勞動工作時期,儲存其未來之所需,而不是一昧的只靠政府資助,而是必須落實自我責任。另外其改革至今,不僅直接的改善了老人的經濟安全問題,更對其國內經濟、社會做出許多貢獻,起了正面的功用。
      在歷經了二十四年的實行之後,智利老人年金改革的結果,呈現出相當不錯的成果,許多國家也紛紛起而效尤,諸如拉丁美洲國家、中、東歐國家等……。而智利模式的改革,同樣在美國造成許多的討論。另外,台灣在今年七月將行的勞工退休金條例,勞退新制也將以個人帳戶制為主,智利的老人年金制度,為欲改革其老人年金制度的國家提供了一個成功模式,而不只是一九八一年的改革,智利在這二十幾年間期間的改革,也不斷的所其他國家所採用,稱其為老人年金制度改革的先驅者實不為過。
      本論文的主旨在於,剖析智利老人年金改革的背景、原因,更進一步探討其制度的內涵,制度運作的成果及其衍生的正面、負面效應,期盼透過對於智利老人年金改革的研究,能為台灣的勞退制度提供些許建議,讓已實行二十四年的智利經驗,提供對於才剛要實施個人帳戶制的台灣,一個阻礙較少的道路,讓台灣能有所借鏡,對於人口老化速度快速的台灣,建構出一套完整的制度。
    On getting older the demographic trend, aging society is coming. It accompany a lot of agenda about elderly persons, including the economic safety, health care etc…Above all, the economic safety of elderly persons is the most important issue. So called “welfare state”, facing the challenge of demographic trend, it has caused the big deficits, derived from the fall earning and the increase in expenditure. Therefore they need to reform its pension system. For the county in the way of development, the same situation they will face in the near future. Now it’s the best moment for them to reform.
    The current Chilean pension system came into force in November 1980 with the publication of Decree-Law No.3500. It encompassed old age, disability and survivor’s benefits on the basis of compulsory personal capitalization .The worker is responsible for building up his or her own pension. The government just plays the role of surveillance and making the law. They offer the minimum pension only when the worker fail to accumulate sufficient money in their own account .Since pension reform has been reformed, it not only directly improves the situation of elderly persons , but also attributes to the development of domestic economy and social progress.

    After 24 years operating, the reform show the considerable successful result .There are many counties has learned lesson form Chilean experience. For example, the Latin America and Central and Eastern counties etc….Furthermore, the U.S.A. also take Chilean model into account. Taiwan’s retirement system will reform in July this year. It adopts the individual account system as well. In summary, Chilean model has influence a lot of county those wants to reform its pension system.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze the background and the reason why Chile reform its pension system. I wish to offer Taiwan’s reform more possibility. Let Taiwan’s reform can go through well and prevent form happening the same problem the Chile went through and take the good use of Chilean successful experience.
    显示于类别:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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