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    題名: 美國對智利阿葉德至皮諾契政權之干預(1970-1990)
    其他題名: The intervention of the United States to Chile (Allende-Pinochet, 1970-1990)
    作者: 石婷月;Shih, Ting-yueh
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    關鍵詞: 智利;阿葉德;皮諾契;馬克思主義;社會主義;美籍多國公司;尼克森;Chile;Allende;Pinochet;Marxism;Socialism;Multinational Corporation;Nixon
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:49:31 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 美國經常干涉他國事務,尤其是第三世界的小國內政。本文以研究美國對智利阿葉德至皮諾契政權之干預為主。闡述美國干涉行為之特質與種類,分析美國對智利之干預之合法性,探討美國如何對這傳統上被視為美國勢力範圍的區域進行干預。最後,評估美國對兩政權之干預的相同與相異處。

    阿葉德於1970年透過合乎憲政的民主程序取得政權上台執政,推行劇烈的反美政策,令美國大為震怒。阿葉德所推行的政策不能完全以馬克思主義作為解釋,他與美國之間的對抗,有相當濃厚的民族主義色彩。阿葉德實行「社會主義經濟」與西方「民主政治」兼具的政策。他於1971年實施銅礦國有化政策,使美國政府與美籍多國公司倍感威脅。美國總統尼克森視阿葉德政權為第二個古巴,對西半球安全構成威脅,進而對阿葉德政府進行了為期三年的外交孤立、經濟封鎖與一系列的顛覆行動。

    1973年9月11日,智利陸、海、空三軍及警察部隊發動政變,推翻了阿葉德政權,也為智利帶入另一個長達16年的軍事政府。皮諾契軍政府上任後,不僅建立了智利史上最獨裁且最久的威權政體,而且使人民遭受到嚴厲的鎮壓與迫害活動。美國政府雖在智利軍事政變後不久就對給予智利相當的經濟與軍事援助,但智利也因皮諾契所引發的人權問題而被國際所孤立,使美國無法再枉顧人權問題及摒除道義上的責任,繼續支持及同情皮諾契政權。
    The United States usually interferes coercively in the affairs of other states, especially in those of the small countries in the Third World. This thesis is the study of U.S. intervention to Chile (Allende-Pinochet), to illustrate the characteristics and patterns of U.S. intervention, and analyzed the legality of U.S. intervention. The Purpose of this thesis is to find out how the U.S. intervened in affairs of the West Hemisphere, an area that is traditionally considered the U.S. sphere of influence. Finally, it evaluated two governments by their similarities and differences.

    Salvador Allende democratically elected as president of Chile came as a great shock to the United States. Allende’s politics counldn’t fully described as Marxism, and some of them originated from nationalism. Allende experimented socialism in Chile and the western democracy. Because of the President Allende nationalized the Gran Minería in 1971, resisted the U.S. government and the american multinational corporations pressure. President Nixon of the U.S. regards Allende’s government as second Cuba, and the threat of security to the West Hemisphere. Nixon’s government had done every thing it could to diplomatically isolate, economically blockade, and politically destabilize Allende’s Chile for three years.

    On September 11, 1973, the army, navy, air force, and the police united to provoke a political coup d’etat in Chile. It not only turned over the Allende’s government, but also brought the Chileans a long authoritarian regime for sixteen years. After General Augusto Pinochet assumed the presidency, Pinochet forced not only the longest and the most severe authoritarian rule in Chilean history, but also made the Chileans suffered crucial repression from the military government. Although the U.S. gave Chile suitable economy and the military assistance after the Chile coup d''etat, Chile was isolated by international because of the human rights questions in the military-controlled government. It caused the U.S. unable to neglect human rights question and the responsibility of justice, and continued to support and sympathized with Pinochet.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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