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    Title: 阿根廷勞工運動之研究(1878~1999)
    Other Titles: A study of labor movement in Argentina(1878~1999)
    Authors: 陳淑敏;Chen, Shu-ming
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    Keywords: 阿根廷;工業化;社會運動;勞工運動;工會;勞工;Argentina;Industrialization;Social movement;Labor movement;Labor Union;Labor
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:49:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 阿根廷勞工運動有其悠久、扣人心弦和複雜的抗爭歷史。當19世紀後半期,阿根廷與歐洲資本主義國家接觸後,開始發展國內工業化,進而使阿根廷產生新的社會力量─勞工階級。在外國壟斷資本家和當地資本家的雙重壓迫下使得勞工們貧困不堪,了無權利。阿根廷勞工運動就在這種情況下,由信奉無政府主義、工團主義和社會主義從事勞動之歐洲移民所推動、開展。20世紀之後隨著工業迅速的發展,勞工人數劇增,勞工階級漸在阿根廷政治生活中產生影響。又隨著不同的意識形態相互交錯影響、引導著阿根廷勞工運動,使阿根廷勞工運動在不同時期有著不同的立場和發展。而阿根廷勞工運動也由單純的經濟抗爭,發展成帶有政治性質的罷工行動,以期獲得政治目的。

    當40年代的勞工階級大多已是由鄉村遷移到城市的人口構成,而不是以往的歐洲移民者,大規模新興的城市勞工階級便活躍在阿根廷政治中。而貝隆(Juan Domingo Perón)更將這些新勞工階級轉化為其重要的政治支持,將勞工運動成為自己可以利用的政治資源。就在貝隆政府大力鼓勵和支持下,阿根廷勞工運動快速蓬勃地發展。之後,不論是在軍人政府鎮壓勞工運動、或是在文人政府承認勞工運動合法的政策下,阿根廷勞工運動從未消失,其於阿根廷政治、經濟及社會方面仍有一定的影響力。之後在50年代國際形勢的變化,共產國家的形成以及殖民主義的體系的瓦解,更是提升了阿根廷勞工運動。隨後,全球化民主自由市場政策,對阿根廷勞工運動所造成的影響,就如同世界上其他國家一樣,使阿根廷勞工運動必須重新整頓其政策及組織。

    本研究主要採用歷史研究及文獻分析方法,著重在於追溯了解阿根廷各時期的國內政治、經濟、社會背景,及國際情勢對勞工、勞工組織之發展演變,以期發現勞工運動對阿根廷政治、經濟、社會之影響及阿根廷勞工運動之律動。最後試圖去剖析、比較各時期的勞工運動及歸納出阿根廷勞工運動本身的特點。
    The Argentine labor movement has been a long, soul-stirring and complicated history of fights. In the second half of the 19th century, ever since getting in touch with the capitalist country from Europe, Argentina began it’s process of industrialization, and a new social force – the working class appeared. Under the oppressions of foreign and domestic monopolized capitalists, labors were extremely poor and lived without rights. Under such situation, Argentine labor movement was promoted and launched by European immigrants who engaged in labor and believed in anarchism, syndicalism and socialism. With the fast industrial development in the 20th century, the number of labor increased rapidly and the working class exerted an influence in Argentine political life. Also, different ideologies influenced each other and guided Argentine labor movement, thus, it showed different position and development in each period. And the Argentine labor movement developed from a simple economic resistance to a political strike in order to obtain political objectives.

    In 1940’s, Argentine working class consisted mainly in population moved from rural area to city, instead of European immigrants. This large-scale rising working class participated in Argentine politics actively. Furthermore, Juan Domingo Perón converted the new working class into his political resource and important support. Under the encouragement and strong support of Perón government, Argentine labor movement advanced vigorously. Later, no matter in the military government, which suppressed the labor movement, or in the democratic government, which recognized the labor movement; Argentine labor movement never disappeared. It demonstrated certain influence in Argentine politics, economy and society constantly. Later, in the 1950’s, the change of international situation, the rise of communist countries and the collapse of colonial system did move up Argentine labor movement adequately. Subsequently, nowadays, the same as other countries in the world, Argentine was influenced by the trend of globalization, democratization, and free market policy. By which, Argentine labor movement has to reconsider their strategy and reform their organization.

    The research adopts historical research and document analytical method. The author emphasizes in tracing back to understand, in each period, how the domestic and international situation of Argentina influenced the labors and the development of labor organizations, so as to discover how the labor movement influenced Argentine politics, economy and society. Finally, the author attempts to analyze and compare the labor movement in each period, and tries to extract some characteristics of Argentine labor movement itself.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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