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|Other Titles: ||A study of labor movement in Argentina(1878~1999)|
|Authors: ||陳淑敏;Chen, Shu-ming|
|Keywords: ||阿根廷;工業化;社會運動;勞工運動;工會;勞工;Argentina;Industrialization;Social movement;Labor movement;Labor Union;Labor|
|Issue Date: ||2010-01-10 23:49:28 (UTC+8)|
當40年代的勞工階級大多已是由鄉村遷移到城市的人口構成，而不是以往的歐洲移民者，大規模新興的城市勞工階級便活躍在阿根廷政治中。而貝隆（Juan Domingo Perón）更將這些新勞工階級轉化為其重要的政治支持，將勞工運動成為自己可以利用的政治資源。就在貝隆政府大力鼓勵和支持下，阿根廷勞工運動快速蓬勃地發展。之後，不論是在軍人政府鎮壓勞工運動、或是在文人政府承認勞工運動合法的政策下，阿根廷勞工運動從未消失，其於阿根廷政治、經濟及社會方面仍有一定的影響力。之後在50年代國際形勢的變化，共產國家的形成以及殖民主義的體系的瓦解，更是提升了阿根廷勞工運動。隨後，全球化民主自由市場政策，對阿根廷勞工運動所造成的影響，就如同世界上其他國家一樣，使阿根廷勞工運動必須重新整頓其政策及組織。
The Argentine labor movement has been a long, soul-stirring and complicated history of fights. In the second half of the 19th century, ever since getting in touch with the capitalist country from Europe, Argentina began it’s process of industrialization, and a new social force – the working class appeared. Under the oppressions of foreign and domestic monopolized capitalists, labors were extremely poor and lived without rights. Under such situation, Argentine labor movement was promoted and launched by European immigrants who engaged in labor and believed in anarchism, syndicalism and socialism. With the fast industrial development in the 20th century, the number of labor increased rapidly and the working class exerted an influence in Argentine political life. Also, different ideologies influenced each other and guided Argentine labor movement, thus, it showed different position and development in each period. And the Argentine labor movement developed from a simple economic resistance to a political strike in order to obtain political objectives.
In 1940’s, Argentine working class consisted mainly in population moved from rural area to city, instead of European immigrants. This large-scale rising working class participated in Argentine politics actively. Furthermore, Juan Domingo Perón converted the new working class into his political resource and important support. Under the encouragement and strong support of Perón government, Argentine labor movement advanced vigorously. Later, no matter in the military government, which suppressed the labor movement, or in the democratic government, which recognized the labor movement; Argentine labor movement never disappeared. It demonstrated certain influence in Argentine politics, economy and society constantly. Later, in the 1950’s, the change of international situation, the rise of communist countries and the collapse of colonial system did move up Argentine labor movement adequately. Subsequently, nowadays, the same as other countries in the world, Argentine was influenced by the trend of globalization, democratization, and free market policy. By which, Argentine labor movement has to reconsider their strategy and reform their organization.
The research adopts historical research and document analytical method. The author emphasizes in tracing back to understand, in each period, how the domestic and international situation of Argentina influenced the labors and the development of labor organizations, so as to discover how the labor movement influenced Argentine politics, economy and society. Finally, the author attempts to analyze and compare the labor movement in each period, and tries to extract some characteristics of Argentine labor movement itself.
|Appears in Collections:||[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文|
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