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    題名: 瓜地馬拉內戰後非法童工問題研究(1996-2005)
    其他題名: The study of illegal child labor in Guatemala after the end of civil war (1996-2005)
    作者: 何祺婷;Ho, Chi-ting
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    關鍵詞: 瓜地馬拉;童工;兒童權利;勞工權利;Guatemala;Child labor;children's right;labor right
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:49:22 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 瓜地馬拉自1996年結束長達36年的內戰後,雖然積極致力於建設國家,但是貧富差距卻日益加大,全國有超過一半的人口生活在貧窮之中,許多兒童為了家計被迫出外謀生,因此童工現象在瓜地馬拉極為普遍。根據「國際勞工組織」的定義,童工為未滿18歲之勞工,瓜地馬拉之18歲以下之童工數目將近一百萬人,佔了全中美洲的童工比例百分之四十。雖然瓜國政府明定,在未經有關單位之許可之下,雇主不得僱用14歲以下之兒童,然而瓜國14歲以下之童工數目卻約有五十萬人,這些童工幾乎都是非法的,所從事的工作不僅具有危險性,有些甚至涉及色情交易、販賣人口等相當惡劣之形式。
    造成今日瓜地馬拉童工現象普遍之因,除了貧窮率高之外,還有保護兒童之執法不嚴、傳統價值觀等社會文化因素。由於印地安原住民馬雅人認為,工作為傳承文化的重要方式,兒童從工作中可培養人格以及責任感,因此馬雅兒童從小就開始準備要工作。此外,童工的比例依性別、城鄉、種族的不同,而有所差異,7至14歲的兒童中,男童工的數目為女孩子的兩倍,鄉村童工之比例也約為城市之兩倍,印地安兒童成為童工之比例也為非印地安兒童之兩倍。非法童工問題造成的負面影響則包括了失學率高、健康容易出現問題,某些童工甚至需要心理建設才能重回社會生活。
    相對於許多國際組織及非政府組織積極地幫助瓜國童工,欲消滅童工現象、保護瓜國兒童權利,近十年來,雖然瓜國政府訂定多項計劃開始著手改善童工問題,但目前仍未看到顯著成效,一方面或許是政府的努力還不夠,一方面或許是因為童工問題的根源複雜,因此無法在短期內消弭童工現象。本篇論文即是從政治、社會、文化等角度分析瓜國童工之背景成因,以及探討童工從事之危險工作形式,並且加以了解目前改善童工問題之計劃及機構,目的在於深入了解當下之瓜地馬拉非法童工問題。
    After the end of Guatemala’s thirty-six-year-long civil war, the government has been working positively on country development, however, the gap between the poor and the rich gets wider. Over half of all Guatemalans live in poverty. The phenomenon of child labor is very common in Guatemala because many children have to work for their family’s survival. According to “International Labor Organization”, the definition of “child labor” means some types of work performed by children below age 18. And in Guatemala, there are near 1 million child labors under 18 years old, which are almost 40 per cent of all child labors in Central America. The laws of Guatemala prohibit children under age 14 from being employed without authorization. However, there are about 500,000 child labors under 14 years old in this country, and most of them are illegal. Many types of work that these child labors involved are hazardous, and some even are unconditional worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation and child trafficking.
    Besides the high poverty incidence, other social and cultural effects such as poor application of the law, and the traditional social value are also the reasons why child labor is so common in Guatemala nowadays. The indigenous Mayan people think that the work is an important way to pass on the tradition, and that the children can develop their characters and sense of responsibilities through working. Therefore, the Mayan children are asked to work at very young age. The prevalence of child labor varies substantially by sex, residence, and ethnicity. The data shows that between 7-14 year-old children, the work prevalence of male children is almost twice that of female children, and the prevalence of child labor in rural areas is almost twice that in urban areas, the possibilities of indigenous children becoming child labors are also twice that of non-indigenous children. The negative effects of illegal child labors include high school dropout rate, bad health conditions, and some child labors can’t go back to the society without psychological help.
    Many international organizations and NGOs try to help eliminate child labor problem in Guatemala enthusiastically, and the Guatemalan government also make many plans to against the phenomenon of child labor in the past decades. However, the results of the government’s work are not obvious. The reason may be the government doesn’t try hard enough, or the root of the child labor problem is too complicated to eliminate in the short term. This thesis aims to understand the problems of illegal child labor in Guatemala firstly by analyzing the background of child labor with political, social, and cultural aspects, secondly by studying the hazardous forms of child labor, and thirdly by understanding the organizations and institutes that are devoted to solving the child labor problem.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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