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    题名: 解放神學對巴西民主化影響之研究
    其它题名: A study of liberation theology for Brazilian democratization
    作者: 張浩盛;Chang, Hao-sheng
    贡献者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳雅鴻;Chang, Yea-hong;白方濟;Pérez, Francisco Luis
    关键词: 巴西;民主化;巴西民主化;解放神學;天主教教會;基層團契;解放教育;Liberation theology;Liberation Education;Brazil;Democratization;Brazilian Democratization;The Catholic Church;Basic Christian Communities
    日期: 2005
    上传时间: 2010-01-10 23:49:19 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 二OO二年十月,巴西最近的一次總統選舉中,出自工人階層的魯拉(Lula)贏得了大選,開啟巴西歷史上來自社會底層民選總統執政的民主新頁。在一些學者的研究當中,巴西一向是政黨體系脆弱的國家,但其勞工黨卻是全國組織最嚴密、動員力最高的政黨,在眾多政黨中鶴立雞群,且在成立二十多年後獲得了執政權。縱觀巴西的發展歷程,其民主化的過程是由執政精英引領全民走向改革,也就是執政當局願意順應時代趨勢而採取民主化的政策,以致使民主制度能建立並順利的運作;這跟勞工黨主張民意當由下而上,在每個社會底層發出需要之聲,接著凝聚意識並動員群眾的觀念並不相同。如果原先這些執政團隊的背後缺乏強固的改革意願,那又是什麼樣的力量默默的為巴西社會注入改革的泉水呢?為了尋找這個答案,筆者耕耘於許多相關的文獻中,漸漸的發現,在巴西人民的心目中,除了政府的領導所牽涉的世俗問題外,自立國以來即為國教的天主教信仰,以及教會的力量,深深影響著巴西社會的轉變。
    同一件事,因為不同的思考角度,將帶出很多不同的意見,也牽引著對特定事件的解讀,這是無庸置疑的。巴西民主化過程可以從多方面的角度切入,或者從其政體轉變的類型,或者是民主化過程中的領導者角色,或者是導致民主化的因素及特色等。巴西民主化的轉型過程,所牽涉到層面最廣也最具體的,當屬民主化因子中的社會因素。一九七O年代初期,巴西威權政體的鞏固乃因經濟體制的穩固,而經濟挫敗多少造成人民進一步的失望,但卻沒有明顯立即性的轉變。但在社會因素方面,從巴西帝國建立以來,資產階級就強勢的主導著巴西的政治演變,其中以咖啡農最為明顯,巴西咖啡產量高居全球第一,又其土地集中於少數地主,這些資產階級明顯左右政治發展。另外,二十世紀中葉時,巴西的文盲偏多,成人識字教育伴隨著政治意識的啟發,散播到巴西的各個角落。而工人運動的組成,更成為拉丁美洲民主轉型的典範,其勞工黨成為全國組織最為嚴密堅實的政黨。以上這些社會因素的形成與轉變,卻不能忘記其核心的力量,也就是在二十世紀中葉興起的「解放神學」運動,這是本論文討論的重點。
    In October of 2002, in Brazil''s recent presidential election, the ones that came from worker''s stratum drew (Lula) and won general election stupidly, open Brazilian history and come up from elected president''s new page of democracy in power of the low degree of society. In some scholars'' research, Brazil is always the country with fragile system of political party, but its laborer'' s party is the most tight mobilizing strength to be supreme political party of national organization, stand head in numerous political parties, and is in power right after establishing more than 20 years. Make a general survey of the development course of Brazil, the course of its democratization is in power the elite leads the whole people to move towards the re form, policy that the authorities in power would like to comply with the era trend to adopt democratization that that is to say, so that enable democratic system to set up and smooth operation; This maintains with laborer’s party that the will of the people is from bottom to top, give out sound needed in each the bottom of society, the idea that then condenses consciousness and arousing the masses is not the same. If originally lack the strong reform will behind these groups in power, what kind of power that injects the reform into Brazilian society quietly of strength is that? In order to look for this answer, I cultivate in a lot of relevant documents, the discovery gradually, in the Brazilian people''s mind, besides the government''s common customs question involved of leadership, since the country of supporting oneself has been the faith of Catholicism of the state religion, and the strength of the church, influencing the transition of the Brazilian society deeply.
    显示于类别:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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