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    題名: 墨西哥政治變遷與外資發展之關係
    其他題名: The relations between the political changes and the development of foreign direct investment of Mexico
    作者: 蕭勇毅;Hsiao, Yung-i
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    關鍵詞: 墨西哥;政治變遷;政治風險;選舉制度改革;外資;Mexico;Political change;Political risk;Reform of electoral system;foreign investment
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:49:09 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 許多拉美國家要邁入工業化國家,幾乎都會採取「進口替代」的政策,使自己國家的工業逐漸發展成形。然而這些國家在經濟發展過程中,往往都會遭遇到資本不足的問題,因此轉向國外尋求資金的挹注是這些國家解決問題的途徑之一。只是一旦外資被引進,國內政治、經濟政策的制訂難保不受到外資的干預,對被投資國的國家主權更是一大威脅。依賴/世界體系理論就對外資大加撻伐,認定外資為先進國家對第三世界進行經濟與政治侵略的幫兇。

    所幸墨西哥自大革命之後,便一直由革命制度黨執政,長期的一黨威權統治,使得政府在政治與經濟政策制訂上握有極大的權力,外資較難進行干預。政府並以相關投資法令規範外資可進入之部門以及持股比例,因此不僅能保持國家主權獨立,同時將外資導入需要資金的產業及地區,使得墨西哥成為拉美地區利用外資較為成功的國家之一。

    外資在選擇被投資國時,除了對經濟環境的評估之外,該國的政治穩定度也是考量的一個基本要素。由於一個國家的政治體制並非恆常不變的,隨著領導階層的更替,政治路線也會隨之出現轉變,而這類的轉變便構成了政治變遷。墨西哥威權政體隨著經濟發展減緩而出現鬆動,1982年的債務危機後,執政者便開始推動選舉制度改革,實行政治民主化,在歷經多年的努力之下,終於在2000年完成政黨輪替,墨西哥成為真正的民主國家。而這二十餘年間,執政者如何透過選舉法的修改以加快墨國民主化腳步、朝野政黨間勢力之消長、新自由主義經濟政策對外資的作用,以及這段期間的政治變遷對外資之影響,乃是此論文所欲探究的重點。
    To become industrialized countries, certain countries in Latin America have adopted the Import Substitution to help them develop their industries. During this process, they usually faced the difficulty of lack of capital, in consequence tending to seek the investment from outward would be a commonly chosen resolution. However, once the foreign investments were imported in a country, the politics and economy could not avoid being affected. These phenomenons are strongly criticized by advocators of Dependency Theory and World system, taking the foreign investments as the accomplice of the economical or political interventions from developed countries to the Third World.

    Fortunately, Mexico is ruled by the PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) after the Mexican Revolution. The long-term one-party authoritarian governance makes the government hold more power on the establishment of the political and economical policy, and it is more difficult for foreign investors to intervene. The government also draws up the foreign investment law to regulate certain departments about allowing the foreigners to invest and the proportion of stock holding. This method not only keeps the independence of the national sovereignty, but conducts the foreign investments into those industries and areas which need the capitals. It makes Mexico become one of the most successful examples taking advantage from foreign investments in Latin America.

    Foreign investors choose the investing countries based on the analysis of a country’s economic environment, and the political stabilization is also a basic element to be considered. Since a country’s political structure is not constantly unchanged but transforms by the rotation of different hierarchies, the transformation becomes political changes. Mexican authoritarian system becomes loosen because the economic development is slowed down. After the debt crisis in 1982, the president started to reform the electoral system and implement democracy. After striving so hard for years, Mexico has been taken as a genuine democracy, especially after the government turnover in the presidential election in 2000. The purpose of this thesis is to research the details of how the presidents of Mexico speed up the process of becoming democratic within the past 20-something years. Furthermore, the competition between the political parties and how the neoliberalistic economic policies and the political changes within this period affect the foreign investments are also discussed and researched in this thesis.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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