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    Title: 祕魯日裔移民之研究
    Other Titles: The research of Japanese immigration in Peru
    Authors: 葉譯瑋;Yeh, Yi-wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成;Hui, Juan-hung
    Keywords: 祕魯;移民;日裔秘魯人;藤森;日本;Peru;Immigration;Japanese-Peruvians(Nikkei);Alberto Fujimori;Japan
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:49:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 日本移民南美洲由來已久,許多日本人後裔不論是永久定居或是暫時居留,主要是居住在巴西、祕魯、阿根廷、巴拉圭和玻利維亞等國家。祕魯是拉丁美洲國家中第一個接受日本移民的國家,此外,祕魯也是拉丁美洲國家中第一個與日本有外交關係往來的國家。直到1873年與秘魯建立外交關係之後,才開啟日本與南美洲國家間的外交往來關係。
    首批日本移民於1899年抵至秘魯,為了逃離日本的貧困,他們簽訂勞工契約,遠赴秘魯沿岸的棉花田或莊園工作,以期能夠致富。日本移民在祕魯的蔗糖農莊工作,但是工作非常辛苦,大多數移民者紛紛逃離莊園到都市發展,尤其是首都利馬為最,從事理髮店或商店的生意。他們由於語言上隔閡,總是自成網絡互相幫忙,這也使得當地祕魯人總是認為日本移民者組成一個封閉的社會。在秘魯的日裔移民歷史上,其中以1940年於首都利馬發生的反日騷動為最嚴重的種族歧視事件。1941年發生第二次世界大戰,對祕魯的日裔社會造成相當大之衝擊。因為祕魯當局決定與美國同一陣線,逮捕許多日本人並將他們驅逐送往美國的集中營。
    本論文以政治、經濟、社會與同化情形等層面檢視日本移民在祕魯之發展情形,並探究何以一個外來種族社會能安身立命超過好幾個世代,日裔秘魯人移民祕魯至今已超過一世紀之久,現在的日裔秘魯人大多數是第二代、第三代移民後代,且高度地文化轉變。不僅在經濟層面上結合,也在政治層面上產生連結,日裔移民後代藤森謙也(Alberto Fujimori)的當選(1990-2000年)就是最好的例證。
    Japanese emigration to South America has a long history. Many people of Japanese descent, both permanent and temporary residents, live in Brazil, Peru, Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia.Peru is the first country in Latin America to accept Japanese immigrants and Peru is the first country in Latin America to develop diplomatic relations with Japan. Ever since diplomatic relations were first established with Peru in 1873, Japan has maintained close links with South America.
    The first Japanese to come in significant numbers arrived in 1899, lured by promises of steady work on Peru''s coastal cotton and sugar plantations. Eager to escape crippling unemployment and poverty in Japan, they avidly signed labor contracts, hoping to come home rich in a few years.Japanese immigrants went to Peru to work for sugarcane farms, but the agriculture in Peru was too hard: most of them gave up to work as farm workers and moved to cities, especially to Lima(capital), to open barbers and shops. They have helped among themselves due to the language barrier, which seemed sometimes to Peruvians as they form a closed community.The history of Peru''s nikkei, or people of Japanese descent, has been marked by even more serious examples of discrimination, including anti-Japanese riots in Lima in 1940 . The World War II, which started in 1941, gave a catastrophic impact on the Japanese community there: Peru, which decided to be in the side of the U.S., detained many Japanese citizens and sent them to the concentration camps in the United States.
    In the thesis, I investigated the development of Japaneses immigrantes in Peru from political, economic, social and assimilative aspects. This paper examines how and why an ethnic community perpetuates itself over generations.After their more than 100-year-long presence in Peru, Japanese-Peruvians, now mostly in their second and third generations, are highly acculturated.They are also integrated economically, and now politically - as exemplified by the election of Alberto Fujimori as the first President of Japanese descent (1990-2000).
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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