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    題名: 新區域主義之實踐---以南錐共同市場為例
    其他題名: The tendency of new regionalism --- case study of mercosur
    作者: 鄭喬文;Cheng, Chiao-wen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    宮國威;Kung, Kuo-wei
    關鍵詞: 區域主義;新區域主義;區域整合;南錐共同市場;Regionalism;New Regionalism;regional integration;Mercosur
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:48:58 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 區域主義總共經過四個時期的演進,第一時期為十九世紀,由發生在歐洲國家內部的貿易行為而啟動;第二時期則於一次大戰後區域協議的簽署,一次及二次大戰期間所簽署的區域協議,多發生在強權國家,通常伴隨強國為鞏固其帝國強權的目的,其手段多半為削減區域間關稅為主,保護主義形式的雙邊協議是此時期的特點;第三個時期則為二次戰後,仍舊以區域性發展為主軸,然而不同於前者,特別受美國強調多邊貿易原則的影響,多邊經濟合作已在此時萌芽;至於第四個時期則為冷戰結束後,新一波的區域主義伴隨高度的經濟互賴並且多邊主義的架構已成形,其發展相較於以往顯得更加開放及自由。

    區域主義的實踐乃透過區域整合協定的形式發展,對於個別國家而言,加入區域整合協定無疑是為了擴大消費市場,增加談判籌碼、吸引外資等目的。本論文將針對傳統區域主義時期,影響國家加入區域整合協定的因素分析,並試圖詮釋1980年代國際情勢的轉變,在國家新的訴求產生後所出現的新趨勢,並影響區域發展,使區域主義出現不同於以往的面貌。此外,兩極體系的瓦解,不再如冷戰時期,由兩極的力量牽制世界體系般的穩定,促使開發中國家政府的自主性提高,相對的也必須承擔起對自身經濟及安全的責任,也因此使得開發中國家傾向集體合作共同分擔經濟及安全的風險。對開發中國家而言,區域主義不僅是其面對兩極體系瓦解及全球化的回應,也是一種聯合力量足以與已開發國家合作或對話的一種機制。

    拉丁美洲經歷1980年代外債危機後,受新自由主義影響,放棄傳統進口替代經濟發展政策,而朝向出口導向、開放市場、放寬外資限制及降低政府干預的發展;南美大國巴西及阿根廷也在經濟改革後漸體認合作的必要性而啟動合作的機制,繼而於1990年代與鄰國巴拉圭及烏拉圭共組南錐共同市場。本論文主要藉由新區域主義趨勢的特點,檢視南錐共同市場內部及外在的發展,並試圖歸納出開發中國家在新區域主義實踐下所面臨之困境與展望。
    The development of Regionalism has gone through four stages thus far. The first stage occurred within the European countries for their trading activities in the nineteenth century; the second stage came after World War I. From the end of World War I to the end of World War II, regional agreements signed within those powerful countries with the aim of consolidating their imperial power, were carried out mainly by lowering regional tariffs. The third stage developed after the end of World War II. Regional development maintained its importance; however, multilateral trade principles, encouraged by the United States, had led the world to a multilateral economic cooperative system. Protectionism was no longer the driving force of regionalism. Instead, openness came to define the last stage that started after the Cold War. The new wave of regionalism comes along with highly economic interdependence. On the other hand, the structure of multilateralism has been well formed which made the development of regionalism comparatively more open-oriented and liberalized.

    Regionalism has been realized through regional integration. Involving itself in a certain regional integration not only will an individual country be able to meet the need to expand the consumer market, but also be able to enforce its power when it comes to negotiations and to attract foreign investment. This thesis aims to analyze why countries join regional integrations, especially those developing countries that are seeking national and economic security and the connection with the worldwide trade market after the collapse of two-polar world system.

    By reforming internal economic condition according to the disciplines of Neoliberalism, Latin American countries had abandoned the Import-Substituting Industrialization policy and adapted an export-oriented policy including deregulation, market-openness and reduction of interference from the governments. Brazil and Argentina, as the two largest South American countries, sensed the need to cooperate. In 1991, along with neighboring countries, Paraguay and Uruguay, they formed the South Common Market (Mercado del Sur or Mercosur in Spanish). From there, this thesis is not only going to present my analysis of the internal and external development of Mercosur with the characteristics of New Regionalism, but also general difficulties encountered by developing countries.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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