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    Title: 土地的捍衛者 : 馬普切問題對智利發展之影響
    Other Titles: The guardian of the land : the influence of Mapuche problem on the development of Chile
    Authors: 王薏琦;Wang, I-chi
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀;Chen, Hsiao-chuan
    Keywords: 智利;馬普切;全球化;土地權;國家認同;Chile;Mapuche;Globalization;Land Rights;National Identity
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:48:53 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 馬普切原住民是拉丁美洲歷史上唯一成功抵抗西班牙殖民軍的原住民族,並且透過「及令條約」的簽訂與西班牙劃清界線,宣示了他們在智利南方土地的主權,成為獨立的國家。然而,智利獨立之後,將馬普切原住民土地劃入國家領土之中,使得馬普切原住民陷入「國中國」的窘況,獨立的主權因此被併吞。雖然如此,但強烈的國族意識仍然存在馬普切原住民部族之間,導致獨立後的智利公民與馬普切原住民的國家認同問題不但產生嚴重的分歧,也影響智利在全球化整合之下的國家政策。

    在本文第二章中,簡略地介紹馬普切原住民的人口、經濟、社會、文化,並透過智利獨立的過程,說明智利國家公民權利的賦予及原住民與公民權利的衝突,最後評析馬普切原住民在智利社會中的存在價值;第三章是智利馬普切原住民歷史上的四大時期,討論不同時期的政策與立法對馬普切原住民的影響;第四章為原住民意識、本土化主義、國家認同及世界文化資產觀念所帶給馬普切原住民和智利的衝擊;第五章為現今國際環境下馬普切原住民及智利所必須共同面對之主要課題及解決方式。

    結論部分針對馬普切原住民問題作一歸納,並為馬普切原住民在智利公民社會中所需扮演的角色做一定位,及提供智利政府原住民政策制定方向,試圖藉此論文提供智利政府及馬普切原住民新的思維方式。
    Mapuche indigenous people was the only race who had successfully resisted the invasion of the Spanish in Latin American history. During the colonial time, after signing “the Treaty of Quilín”, the Mapuche indigenous people made a clear distinction with the Spanish, declared the sovereignty of the south of Chile, and established an independent country. However, after the independence of Chile, the land of Mapuche was included into the Republic. This situation involved them into a “vice-country” of Chile, and the sovereignty of Mapuche land was also annexed. For all that, a strong national identity still exist in Mapuche group; it not only caused the different idea between Chilean and Mapuche people, but also influenced the indigenous policy of Chile under the globalization.

    In chapter 2, briefly introducing the population, economy, society and culture of Mapuche indigenous people. Knowing the process of the independence of Chile could help us understand the conflict of the citizen right between Chilean and Mapuche indigenous people. In addition, evaluating the value of the existence of Mapuche indigenous people in Chile; chapter 3 is about the four historic periods of Mapuche indigenous people, discussing the influence of the policy and legislation of the Chilean government.; chapter 4 is about the impact of the international world current: the consciousness of the indigenous people, the principal of localization, national identity and national cultural property. In chapter 5, discussing the main subjects and solutions that Chilean and Mapuche indigenous people should face together nowadays.

    The conclusion is the induction of the problem of Mapuche indigenous people in Chile, giving a position to Mapuche indigenous people in Chilean society, offering the direction of indigenous policy to Chilean government, and affiliating this thesis to offer a new way of thinking for both of them.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies] Thesis

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