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    Title: 玻利維亞的貧富差距 : 社會面與政策面之研究
    Other Titles: The spread between the rich and the poor in Bolivia : a study of the social problem and related policy
    Authors: 蔡瑞娟;Tsai, Jui-chuan
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    Keywords: 玻利維亞;貧富差距;貧窮;不均衡;玻利維亞降低貧窮策略;Bolivia;The Spread between the Rich and the Poor;Poverty;inequality;Bolivian Poverty Reduction Strategy
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:48:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2003年9月開始在玻利維亞境內所爆發的危機不是一場單純的天然氣出口的抗議事件,它的嚴重性已經發展成政治與社會的風暴。事實上,抗議天然氣外送事件只是壓死駱駝的最後一根稻草,貧窮、不均與社會排斥這些才是導致大批民眾走上街頭的主要原因。在玻國包括農民、原住民與許多長期缺乏資源的群眾他們十分不滿當時主政的總統桑契斯採取自由市場的政策,尤其是大多數的原住民從殖民時代就身陷貧因之中,直到當代仍無法擺脫貧窮,選舉時打擊貧窮的承諾頓時成為空談。
    玻利維亞於新自由主義改革政策推行的時期,政府推動資本化且伴隨大量外資的進入,導致國家對外依賴加重,經濟命脈完全掌握於跨國公司的手中,許多的民眾卻依舊過著一天收入不到一美元的日子;相對地,少數人藉此機會與跨國公司連成一氣,對社會上為數眾多的低薪勞工進行剝削,以獲取及提升自身的利益。在資本化的刺激下本來就不穩定的中產階級逐漸沒落,更加速了貧富兩極的分化。1999至2002年這四年間吉尼係數都在0.6上下擺盪,而且未見下降的趨勢,我們可以肯定若政府不再積極去面對與處理貧富差距與嚴重的貧窮問題,一個貧富極端分化的社會將會形成,且很難去阻止其惡化的速度與程度。
    1996年世界銀行與IMF提出重債窮國減債倡議,在這項倡議的架構下,玻利維亞成為繼烏干達之後第二個獲得債務減免的國家。世界銀行與IMF最主要是希望透過債務的減免,玻國政府能因此將本來要用於償債的資金移轉至社會建設之上,以降低國內居高不下的貧窮率,提升國家整體的生活水準,早日脫離重債窮國之列。再者,降低貧窮策略計劃書為申請減債的必要條件之一,也是國際債權人衡量債務減免額度的依據。2001年3月玻利維亞正式提出完整的降低貧窮策略計劃書,名為玻利維亞降低貧窮策略,正式為打擊貧窮訂立明確的方針。
    在此所要突顯的是,政府所推動的改革政策究竟有沒有使人民過著更好的生活。本文盼望於分析的過程中能給予貧富差距這項問題最適當的解釋,除了嘗試討論出解決該問題的方法與可能性外,更期盼的是能以這類的研究工作,來喚起世界其他地區的人民對開發中國家內部貧富差距問題的重視。
    In Bolivia hundreds of people opposed violently the exportation of natural gas, and from September 2003 their movement have been getting more intense. The impact of protestation was more than expected, and has generated the political and social crisis further. In fact, this incident is just like the last straw that breaks the camel´s back. The major factors which make the people take to the streets to express their discontent are poverty, inequality and social exclusion, because they can''t stand any more. In this country the farmers, indigenes and many people who lack the resources for a long time are dissatisfied with the market-liberalization policy under the administration of President Sánchez . Those indigenous people have lived in poverty and distress from the colonial age, most miserably, until now they still can''t get rid of the poor living conditions. The electoral promises have never been accomplished , and the fight against poverty sometimes is a simple goal without taking any action.
    Beginning in 1985, the government began the structural reforms that made it possible to stabilize the economy and bring about conditions conducive to growth. At that moment the government impelled the capitalization of the biggest state-run companies, at the same time, allowed the massive foreign capitals to enter the domestic market. The result of opening overly the market is that the State has lost the economic independence and the lifeline has completely been controlled by multinational corporations. During the reform of liberalization, many people have to suffer the risk of unemployment, and under this pressure they also are forced to live on less than US$1 or 2 per day. The problems of poverty are exacerbated in particular as the result of insufficient stable opportunities for wage-earning and self-employed jobs. Thus we can observe that the middle class begins to collapse, the social structure has been divided extremely into the rich and the poor. Finally, a polarized society is formed gradually.
    In March 2001 the Bolivian government has completed the elaboration of Poverty Reduction Strategy(Bolivian Poverty Reduction Strategy, BPRS). The BPRS endeavors to narrow the gap that exists between economic policy and social policy, so that the determination of the State will be focused not only on growth targets, but also on poverty and social-exclusion reduction objectives. However, the BPRS need a more efficient and responsible administration, therefore the actual conflict and tension can really be eliminated.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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