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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/30603

    Title: 玻利維亞的貧富差距 : 社會面與政策面之研究
    Other Titles: The spread between the rich and the poor in Bolivia : a study of the social problem and related policy
    Authors: 蔡瑞娟;Tsai, Jui-chuan
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    Keywords: 玻利維亞;貧富差距;貧窮;不均衡;玻利維亞降低貧窮策略;Bolivia;The Spread between the Rich and the Poor;Poverty;inequality;Bolivian Poverty Reduction Strategy
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:48:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2003年9月開始在玻利維亞境內所爆發的危機不是一場單純的天然氣出口的抗議事件,它的嚴重性已經發展成政治與社會的風暴。事實上,抗議天然氣外送事件只是壓死駱駝的最後一根稻草,貧窮、不均與社會排斥這些才是導致大批民眾走上街頭的主要原因。在玻國包括農民、原住民與許多長期缺乏資源的群眾他們十分不滿當時主政的總統桑契斯採取自由市場的政策,尤其是大多數的原住民從殖民時代就身陷貧因之中,直到當代仍無法擺脫貧窮,選舉時打擊貧窮的承諾頓時成為空談。
    In Bolivia hundreds of people opposed violently the exportation of natural gas, and from September 2003 their movement have been getting more intense. The impact of protestation was more than expected, and has generated the political and social crisis further. In fact, this incident is just like the last straw that breaks the camel´s back. The major factors which make the people take to the streets to express their discontent are poverty, inequality and social exclusion, because they can''t stand any more. In this country the farmers, indigenes and many people who lack the resources for a long time are dissatisfied with the market-liberalization policy under the administration of President Sánchez . Those indigenous people have lived in poverty and distress from the colonial age, most miserably, until now they still can''t get rid of the poor living conditions. The electoral promises have never been accomplished , and the fight against poverty sometimes is a simple goal without taking any action.
    Beginning in 1985, the government began the structural reforms that made it possible to stabilize the economy and bring about conditions conducive to growth. At that moment the government impelled the capitalization of the biggest state-run companies, at the same time, allowed the massive foreign capitals to enter the domestic market. The result of opening overly the market is that the State has lost the economic independence and the lifeline has completely been controlled by multinational corporations. During the reform of liberalization, many people have to suffer the risk of unemployment, and under this pressure they also are forced to live on less than US$1 or 2 per day. The problems of poverty are exacerbated in particular as the result of insufficient stable opportunities for wage-earning and self-employed jobs. Thus we can observe that the middle class begins to collapse, the social structure has been divided extremely into the rich and the poor. Finally, a polarized society is formed gradually.
    In March 2001 the Bolivian government has completed the elaboration of Poverty Reduction Strategy(Bolivian Poverty Reduction Strategy, BPRS). The BPRS endeavors to narrow the gap that exists between economic policy and social policy, so that the determination of the State will be focused not only on growth targets, but also on poverty and social-exclusion reduction objectives. However, the BPRS need a more efficient and responsible administration, therefore the actual conflict and tension can really be eliminated.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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