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    Title: 美國對海地政治發展之影響 : 以阿里斯蒂德政治危機為例
    Other Titles: U.S.influence to Haiti political developments : case study of Aristide political crisis as example
    Authors: 李佩樺;Lee, Pei-hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成;Hui, Juan-hung
    Keywords: 海地;阿里斯蒂德;維和行動;美國;Haiti;Jean-Bertrand Aristide;Peace keeping Operations;United States
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:48:16 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 美國在1776年獨立的時候,成為後來很多殖民地國家獨立的參照和榜樣,其次為海地於1804年脫離法國獨立,海地成為拉丁美洲第一個獨立的國家,然而200多年過去了,現今海地還是拉丁美洲最貧困的國家,國內政治無法穩定並存在嚴重的貪腐政治鬥爭問題,社會暴力事件層出不窮。

    海地的殖民史是當地社會動盪的原因,自1804年海地獨立之後,當時政府高壓又腐敗,直到1915年美國介入才結束,由於政局不穩使外資卻步海地經濟破產,爾後親美的杜瓦利埃家族獨裁統治長達29年之久,直到1986年被罷黜下台。爾後阿里斯蒂德在美國與國際社會的監督下於1990年12月當選總統,然而卻在上台後不久就被軍事政權推翻爆發政治危機,1993年正是適逢美國推行民主人權時,美國柯林頓總統開始介入海地問題,把阿里斯蒂德送回海地重回總統寶座,以利美國對其灌輸民主及人權的思想,此後國際社會也投入相當多的援助,聯合國和安理會對於危機發生後也派遣維和部隊的進駐,展開維和行動,以助其國家社會的重建,但卻隨著2004年危機再度爆發阿里斯蒂德再度流亡宣告失敗,更顯現出美國與國際社會介入海地徒勞無功。

    美國對於海地政治發展的影響甚遠,但是海地的民主並非自己發展出來,而是美國強行干涉其內政灌輸的,2006年雖然舉行了總統大選,普雷瓦總統借助聯合國維和部隊的力量稍微穩定局勢,海地還是很有可能在陷入混亂武裝份子反抗,最後又會造成內部局勢的動盪,由此可見美國在海地輸出的民主與干涉,與其社會現實差距甚遠強烈矛盾,因此可見美國的經驗革命不能輸出,每個國家必須針對其狀況發展。
    Haiti''s colonial legacy is blame for much of its structural instability: slavery, a corrupt and repressive mulatto elite that ruled over the black population from independence in 1804 until the US occupation (1915-1934). When instability made foreign companies lose interest in Haiti’s cheap labor it suffered economic bankruptcy. Then the Duvalier family dictatorship rule Haiti 29 years. Since Jean-Claude Duvalier was pushed out in 1986, elections have been violent and have rarely resolved any of country’s pressing problems. When Jean-Bertrand Aristide, first came to power in 1990 at the head of the Lavalas grassroots movement, he only lasted a few months before the military kicked him out. Reinstated thanks to US intervention in 1994, he was only allowed to complete what had been his original term in office. At the same time, the UN starts Peace Keeping Operations in Haiti.

    By the political crisis happened again in 2004, especially in a country where the U.S. has traditionally intervened. That shows the U.S. intervenes defeat. Therefore the U.S. experiences cannot output, each country must aim at own condition development. After the political crisis, the UN Security Council sent Minustah. The stabilizing has succeeded in organising the elections but has not been able to stop the increase in internal instability, violence, the growth of armed groups or the economic crisis.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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