|其他題名: ||A reserch of Menemism in Argentina|
|作者: ||梁玉玲;Liang, Yu-ling|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:48:13 (UTC+8)|
The Argentine difficult positions which have to face in 1989 are the domestic extremely serious economical problem and the high unemployment rate. The political aspect also presents the disorder in the political party condition. The country people have lost the confidence to Alfonsín''s Radical Party（UCR）and transfer to support the presidential candidate of Justicialist Party－Menem. In Menem''s first tenure from 1989 to 1995, the dazzling economical growth has stabilized the national interior political power. Under the background of the legitimate member of Peronist Party, Menem entrusts with this party new atmosphere and redefines for this party. In 90''s of Argentina, it appears Menemism to succeed Peronism. Menemism affects the party politics directly, even includes the economical, social and the cultural plane in the national historical period. Leader''s individual leadership style and his special characteristic appear traditional populism which was intertwined more than 50 years in Argentina.
In Latin America''s politics cultural context, the special product－caudillism and populism are two major causes to influence Menemism to rise. In this context, it has also contained the directest influence－Peronism. In fact, populism is similar to the phantom to pace back and forth in the political developing process in Latin American, moreover if we neglected to its understanding, then it''s unable to understand Latin America profoundly. Furthermore, neoliberalism and the populism achieve accidentally the coordination to the century''s end in the Latin American to form neopopulismo. Besides, the contemporary domestic and foreign environment also influence profoundly the shape of Menemism.
The military government''s violent behavior in ''70 leaves behind the grief, the military government''s defeat in Falkland islands in 1982, as well as from 1988 to 1989 the ultra inflation creates the wound to the domestic economy；Menem extremely familiarizes the panicky sentiment that people face for a long time. Moreover, the economical stability that the people need urgently for Menem is the best storyline to make up the script. As for the economical aspect, the reality and the historical experience urge Menem to regard privatization as the good medicine to solve foreign loan problem. Menem obeys the imperialism unconditionally in order to guarantee that he can enjoy the status of the privilege. This is like to stand in the identical alignment with Europe and America in the international expansion of their own empire, therefore Menem is the pioneer of "presidential peonismo." Menemism develops the economical relations as the main melody in the diplomatic idea and changes the historical anti-America tradition. There are mainly the following three directions:" Peripheral Realism" as the guidance, using the posture of powerful nation to return to the international society and economical promotion as the core of diplomatic decision.
After ten years of unrest of Menemism, about Menem''s challenges to the democracy：first, evading the parliamentary legislative power in order to use presidential decrees to implement the privatization; second, in order to guarantee that he can use those judges, so he interferes in national judicial system; third, in order to be elected once again, so he promotes the constitutional reform. The Argentine society also has been marked in super serious unemployment, super corruption as well as super unsafe. The warfare inside Peronist Party and the presidential election in 1999 become the antidote to resist Menem to grasp hegemony, also announce the disintegration of Menemism.
Such populism country as Argentina, the phenomenon of Menemism can be understood. In fact, the rationale of Menemism is "the realism spirit." It doesn''t exist fixed principles in Menem''s actions; neither is the ideology which faces the liberalism to transform. His faith completely comes from need at that time.