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    題名: 阿根廷梅南主義之研究
    其他題名: A reserch of Menemism in Argentina
    作者: 梁玉玲;Liang, Yu-ling
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成;Hui, Juan-hung
    關鍵詞: 阿根廷;貝隆主義;梅南;梅南主義;民粹主義;新民粹主義;Argentina;Peronism;Menem;Menemism;Populism;neopopulism
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:48:13 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 阿根廷於一九八九年所需面對的困境,是國內極為嚴重的經濟問題及居高不下的失業率,政治方面也呈現紊亂失序的政黨型態,阿國人民已對阿爾方幸所屬的激進公民黨失去信心,轉而支持正義黨總統候選人梅南。梅南在其一九八九年至一九九五年的第一任期間,耀眼的經濟成長穩定了國家內部政權。在正統的貝隆黨員出身背景之下,梅南賦予該黨新的氣象,並且為貝隆黨重新定義,出現了繼貝隆主義之後在阿根廷九○年代對政黨政治最直接影響,甚至包括經濟、社會、文化層面的阿國歷史時期-“梅南主義”。執政者個人的領導風格及其作風特質突顯出阿根廷糾結了五十多年的傳統民粹主義。
    在拉丁美洲的政治文化背景中,對梅南主義產生影響的主要有拉美地區的特產-高地猶主義與民粹主義,其中也包含了對其最直接影響的貝隆主義。事實上,民粹主義就如同是徘徊在拉美政治發展過程中揮之不去的幽靈,而且若忽略了對它的認識,則無法深刻地了解拉丁美洲。再者,新自由主義與民粹主義於世紀末在拉美意外地達成協調與一致,所形成的“新民粹主義”,與當代阿國面臨的國內外環境,同樣深刻影響著梅南主義的成形。
    一九七○年代軍政府的暴力行為所遺留下來的傷痛、一九八二年軍政府在福克蘭群島的戰敗,以及一九八八年至一九八九年超通貨膨脹對國內經濟造成的創傷;梅南非常熟悉人民心中長久面對的驚恐,而且人民對於經濟穩定的迫切需要對梅南而言,更是用以編造劇本的無以倫比的故事情節。經濟方面,現實和歷史的經驗促使梅南將私有化視為解決外債問題的的良藥,梅南經由對帝國主義的無條件服從,以便確保能夠享有特權的地位,這如同與歐美在國際上的帝國擴張站在同一陣線,因此梅南是“總統侍從主義”的開拓者。梅南主義在外交理念上以發展經濟關係為外交的主旋律,改變了歷史上的反美傳統,主要有下列三個方向:“邊陲現實主義”理論的指導作用、以強國之姿重返國際社會、促進經濟增長為外交決策的核心。
    歷經十年的梅南主義風潮後,有關梅南對民主造成的挑戰,首先,是規避議會的立法權,由總統頒布的行政命令來實行私有化;其次,為確保法院的法官能為己所用而干涉國家的司法體系,第三,為了能夠再次當選連任而促進憲法的修改。阿國社會也被烙印上超級嚴重失業、超級貪污以及超級不安全的三項印記。正義黨內的混戰與一九九九年的總統大選成為對抗梅南掌握霸權的解毒劑,也宣告了梅南主義的瓦解。
    在阿根廷這樣一個民粹的國家,梅南主義的現象是可被理解的。實際上,梅南主義的理論基礎就是“現實主義精神”,梅南的作為既不是存在既定的原則,也不是朝著自由主義來轉變的意識形態;他的信念完全來自當時的需要。
    The Argentine difficult positions which have to face in 1989 are the domestic extremely serious economical problem and the high unemployment rate. The political aspect also presents the disorder in the political party condition. The country people have lost the confidence to Alfonsín''s Radical Party(UCR)and transfer to support the presidential candidate of Justicialist Party-Menem. In Menem''s first tenure from 1989 to 1995, the dazzling economical growth has stabilized the national interior political power. Under the background of the legitimate member of Peronist Party, Menem entrusts with this party new atmosphere and redefines for this party. In 90''s of Argentina, it appears Menemism to succeed Peronism. Menemism affects the party politics directly, even includes the economical, social and the cultural plane in the national historical period. Leader''s individual leadership style and his special characteristic appear traditional populism which was intertwined more than 50 years in Argentina.
    In Latin America''s politics cultural context, the special product-caudillism and populism are two major causes to influence Menemism to rise. In this context, it has also contained the directest influence-Peronism. In fact, populism is similar to the phantom to pace back and forth in the political developing process in Latin American, moreover if we neglected to its understanding, then it''s unable to understand Latin America profoundly. Furthermore, neoliberalism and the populism achieve accidentally the coordination to the century''s end in the Latin American to form neopopulismo. Besides, the contemporary domestic and foreign environment also influence profoundly the shape of Menemism.
    The military government''s violent behavior in ''70 leaves behind the grief, the military government''s defeat in Falkland islands in 1982, as well as from 1988 to 1989 the ultra inflation creates the wound to the domestic economy;Menem extremely familiarizes the panicky sentiment that people face for a long time. Moreover, the economical stability that the people need urgently for Menem is the best storyline to make up the script. As for the economical aspect, the reality and the historical experience urge Menem to regard privatization as the good medicine to solve foreign loan problem. Menem obeys the imperialism unconditionally in order to guarantee that he can enjoy the status of the privilege. This is like to stand in the identical alignment with Europe and America in the international expansion of their own empire, therefore Menem is the pioneer of "presidential peonismo." Menemism develops the economical relations as the main melody in the diplomatic idea and changes the historical anti-America tradition. There are mainly the following three directions:" Peripheral Realism" as the guidance, using the posture of powerful nation to return to the international society and economical promotion as the core of diplomatic decision.
    After ten years of unrest of Menemism, about Menem''s challenges to the democracy:first, evading the parliamentary legislative power in order to use presidential decrees to implement the privatization; second, in order to guarantee that he can use those judges, so he interferes in national judicial system; third, in order to be elected once again, so he promotes the constitutional reform. The Argentine society also has been marked in super serious unemployment, super corruption as well as super unsafe. The warfare inside Peronist Party and the presidential election in 1999 become the antidote to resist Menem to grasp hegemony, also announce the disintegration of Menemism.
    Such populism country as Argentina, the phenomenon of Menemism can be understood. In fact, the rationale of Menemism is "the realism spirit." It doesn''t exist fixed principles in Menem''s actions; neither is the ideology which faces the liberalism to transform. His faith completely comes from need at that time.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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