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    題名: 北美自由貿易協定對墨西哥農業的影響
    其他題名: The impact of NAFTA in Mexican agriculture.
    作者: 林漢智;Ling, Han-chih
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    宮國威;Kung, Kuo-wei
    關鍵詞: 經濟改革;玉米;農業協定;補貼;北美自由貿易協定;墨西哥;農業改革;Economic Reform;Corn;URAA;WTO;Subsidies;NAFTA;Mexico
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:48:08 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 農業為一國經濟發展的基石,不論是國家的經濟發展程度如何,該部門因其敏感度與重要性而受到各國政府的保護。二次世界大戰後,全球農產品貿易的成長大幅增加,但1980年代各國重新採取保護政策,國際市場充斥著扭曲市場的貿易壁壘,造成農產品貿易的停滯。因此,各國透過多邊機制於1994年簽定農業協定,開始對國際農產品貿易進行規範,朝向一個較公平及市場導向的貿易制度。

    墨西哥於1910年的農業大革命後開始進行土地改革,農業發展一度獲得亮眼的表現。然而,由於政府實行重工輕農的政策,農業的重要性相對地逐步下降。1982年爆發外債危機,墨國開始進行經濟改革。1988年薩利納斯總統上台後,更改變傳統上對農業的保護措施,使農業生產與貿易以出口導向為主,同期間亦完成了北美自由貿易協定的談判。

    NAFTA實行的成效一直為各國所關注,特別是農業貿易的部分,因為農產品是所有貿易事項中最敏感的產品,並且美、加兩國的農業生產條件與補貼政策普遍優於墨國。NAFTA實行至今已進入第15年,墨國各方面的發展均受到協定相當程度的影響,尤其是與美、加的貿易總額快速增加。然而,關於農產品貿易,墨國對美、加長期為逆差,不僅造成政府赤字的壓力,亦對國內的農業生產結構帶來衝擊,同時擴大農業與其他部門發展的差距。

    總而言之,隨著NAFTA實行的時間增長,評估其成效的變數亦增加,墨國農業發展的結果與當初的預期出現落差。墨國的農業改革減少對農業生產造成扭曲,同時降低政府對農產品市場的干預,此外,最敏感的農產品已於2008年完全開放,因此,未來仍需適時的使用非貿易障礙,以換取調整農業生產結構的時間與空間。
    Agriculture is the basis of the economic development in every country. It has been commonly protected by Governments because of the importance and the sensitivity of this sector, no matter how developed the economy could be. The global commerce of agricultural products increased substantially after World War II; however, by the 1980s states reselected protecting policies which resulted in the existence of trade barriers in the global market that leaded to the stagnation on the trade of agricultural products. Therefore, Sates signed agricultural agreements through multilateral mechanisms in 1994 to establish the regulation of international agricultural product trading.

    After the revolution in 1910, the agricultural development in Mexico was once significant successful, but due to the Government’s policy of industrial expansion, the importance of agriculture was gradually decreased. By the outbreak of financial crisis in 1982, Mexico began an economical reform, and when the former Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari started his term, immediately processed the “National Development Plan”, which changed the traditional way of protecting agricultural sector. This Plan stimulated the production of agricultural items that faced also an external market. Additionally, the Government achieved the negotiation of North American Free Trade Agreement during this period.

    The international community was expecting the outcome after Mexico joined NAFTA, especially on the agricultural commerce part, because this sector is one of the most sensitive points in this treat due to the better agricultural production that the United States and Canada have in comparison with Mexico. Fourteen years after signing NAFTA, Mexico has showed a significant economical growth, more than any other country in Latin America because the commerce between this three countries, Mexico, the US and Canada has grown rapidity. However, Mexico has experienced during the last years the deficit on the agriculture trade with those two countries, situation that enlarges the interval on development of agriculture and other sectors.

    In resume, with progress of NAFTA, the factor to adjust its affection is increasing as well, and the outcome of Mexican agriculture development is dropping out from the international expectation. The Mexico’s agricultural reform is reducing the effect on agricultural producing, while the government is decreasing it’s participation in the agriculture market. However, the agricultural sector, the most sensitive one in NAFTA, is going to be complete liberalized in 2008, therefore, the future policy still need to use the non-trade barriers at appropriate timing for exchanging the time and space for adjust the producing structure of Mexican agriculture.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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