|其他題名: ||The impact of NAFTA in Mexican agriculture.|
|作者: ||林漢智;Ling, Han-chih|
|關鍵詞: ||經濟改革;玉米;農業協定;補貼;北美自由貿易協定;墨西哥;農業改革;Economic Reform;Corn;URAA;WTO;Subsidies;NAFTA;Mexico|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:48:08 (UTC+8)|
Agriculture is the basis of the economic development in every country. It has been commonly protected by Governments because of the importance and the sensitivity of this sector, no matter how developed the economy could be. The global commerce of agricultural products increased substantially after World War II; however, by the 1980s states reselected protecting policies which resulted in the existence of trade barriers in the global market that leaded to the stagnation on the trade of agricultural products. Therefore, Sates signed agricultural agreements through multilateral mechanisms in 1994 to establish the regulation of international agricultural product trading.
After the revolution in 1910, the agricultural development in Mexico was once significant successful, but due to the Government’s policy of industrial expansion, the importance of agriculture was gradually decreased. By the outbreak of financial crisis in 1982, Mexico began an economical reform, and when the former Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari started his term, immediately processed the “National Development Plan”, which changed the traditional way of protecting agricultural sector. This Plan stimulated the production of agricultural items that faced also an external market. Additionally, the Government achieved the negotiation of North American Free Trade Agreement during this period.
The international community was expecting the outcome after Mexico joined NAFTA, especially on the agricultural commerce part, because this sector is one of the most sensitive points in this treat due to the better agricultural production that the United States and Canada have in comparison with Mexico. Fourteen years after signing NAFTA, Mexico has showed a significant economical growth, more than any other country in Latin America because the commerce between this three countries, Mexico, the US and Canada has grown rapidity. However, Mexico has experienced during the last years the deficit on the agriculture trade with those two countries, situation that enlarges the interval on development of agriculture and other sectors.
In resume, with progress of NAFTA, the factor to adjust its affection is increasing as well, and the outcome of Mexican agriculture development is dropping out from the international expectation. The Mexico’s agricultural reform is reducing the effect on agricultural producing, while the government is decreasing it’s participation in the agriculture market. However, the agricultural sector, the most sensitive one in NAFTA, is going to be complete liberalized in 2008, therefore, the future policy still need to use the non-trade barriers at appropriate timing for exchanging the time and space for adjust the producing structure of Mexican agriculture.