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    題名: 邁阿密古巴移民在美國影響力之研究
    其他題名: The influence of Miami Cuban immigrants in the United States
    作者: 陳智馨;Chen, Chih-hsin
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-chi
    關鍵詞: 邁阿密;古巴移民潮;西裔化;美國總統大選;Miami;the waves of Cuba immigration;Hispanization;the United States Presidential Elections
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:47:59 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 自1959年卡斯楚革命成功後,便不斷出現古巴人移往美國的現象,稱為古巴移民潮。本論文探討邁阿密古巴移民與其對美國之影響力。移民潮自1959年至1994年分為四次,他們一開始被稱為古巴流亡人士、後則成為古巴難民甚至乘桴人,這些稱謂呈現出不同階段古巴移民潮的移民素質、移民社會地位及美古關係之變化。由於地緣之便,古巴個階段移民多數皆移往佛羅里達州,尤其是與古巴隔海相望的邁阿密更是古巴人主要聚集地。由於古巴裔在邁阿密影響力逐日劇增,美國政府把邁阿密第八街劃為古巴社區,亦稱「小哈瓦那」。

    邁阿密古巴移民不但在當地人多勢眾,他們更是被視為永久改變邁阿密的人口結構與城市型態之主要因素。邁阿密是全美國西裔化程度最深的地區,其中古巴裔是最主要勢力。他們對不但影響佛羅里達州的政治與選舉,邁阿密市長、警察局長等都是古巴裔;更由於邁阿密古巴移民是美國與古巴政治鬥爭下的產物,他們對於美國政治關心的程度也大於其他族群,因而其勢力也滲入華盛頓特區,影響美國政治。他們是美國提供政治獻金第二多的少數民族,佛州民選之國會議員有半數亦為古巴裔,他們更在美國近兩次緊繃的總統大選中成為關鍵少數族群。

    古巴裔由於反卡斯楚左派政府,加上美國兩黨歷來對於古巴議題態度軟硬的差異,因此,自1960年代以來都傾向於屬保守右派的共和黨。近年來美國國內民主與共和兩大黨競爭日益激烈,為爭取古巴裔選民的支持,甚至促使兩黨對於古巴非法移民、解除對古巴禁運議題上作出讓步。2000年大選中,古巴裔與美國整體民意呈現相左時,古巴裔選民抉擇更是讓美國兩黨在選票的考量下不敢得罪古巴裔。2008年美國總統大選再度來到,兩黨候選人是否會再度迎合古巴裔,而其是否又會成為關鍵得少數?本論文即欲從外在因素與內在特質來探討古巴裔選民傾向,觀察其對美國總統大選之可能影響。
    Since the victory of the Castro’s Revolution in 1959, the Cuban people increased their immigration to the United States; we call it “the waves of immigration from Cuba”. This thesis studies the Miami Cuban and their influence to the United States of America. During 1959 to 1994 there were four waves of Cuban immigration, they’ve been called the exiles first, refugees and balseros later. From their name you can distinguish their quality, their social background and the relations between both countries. This four waves of immigration happened towards the United States because of the geographic position between Cuba and the USA which motivates the immigrates to move to Florida, especially Miami, and this is characterized as the city with major Cuban concentration. The influence of the Cuban-American increases everyday, and even the American Government has named the street of Miami “Calle Ocho” as the Cuban community, also called the “Little Havana”.

    The Miami-Cuban influence owes not only to their population majority in Miami, they have been considered too the major cause of the change in Miami’s population ethnicity and the city style forever. Miami is the city with deepest “Hispanization” in the United States and the Cuban people is the major force there. They have become an important variety to Florida’s political elections. Mayor of Miami City and the Head of the Police Station in Miami, etc, are American-Cubans. Besides, as the Miami-Cuban society is a product of the USA and Cuban political enmity, the Cuban-American care more about politics than other races in the United States. They are the second biggest economic lobby group in the American political circle, and half of the Senator of Florida has been Cuban-American. They have also turned out to be the vital minority for the winning of the Presidential Election in the last two terms.

    Since the 1960’s the Cuban-American came to the United States escaping from the left-wing Castro Regime, and the different attitude of the two major parties toward Cuban issues, they have tended to support the Republican. Nevertheless, the competition between the Democratic and Republican Parties has been very close in recent years, considering the Cuban voters, both parties have been more compromising about the Cuban’s illegal immigration and the economic blockade and so on. In the 2000 Presidential election, while the Cuban American and the USA citizen in general showed different attitude about Cuban issue, they seemed to be the decisive force. And then these parties are still more flexible towards the Cuban American. Will these two parties still try to satisfy the American Cuban people and will the American Cuban people be the decisive voters again for the 2008 presidential election? That’s why this thesis intends to analyze the Cuban voting behavior from an inside-out perspective, to discover who the American Cuban voters prefer and to see their influence to the United States Presidential Elections.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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