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    Title: 新自由主義發展策略模式與二○○一年阿根廷金融危機關係之研究
    Other Titles: The relation between the model of neoliberal development strategy and the Argentine financial crisis in 2001
    Authors: 丁健民;Ding, Jian-min
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成;Hui, Juan-hung
    Keywords: 新自由主義;華盛頓共識;經濟全球化;阿根廷;金融危機;Neoliberalism;Washington Consensus;Economic Globalization;Argentina;Financial Crisis
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:47:51 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在一九七○年代中期後,新自由主義在經濟理論和政策上開始展露頭腳。在阿根廷,新自由主義試驗始於一九七六年三月二十四日,當大部分的野蠻獨裁政權在阿根廷的二十世紀歷史,透過軍事政變取得政權。軍方政權的經濟政策顛覆了數十年致力於工業化的保護主義發展政策與發展國內市場。由於債務危機的爆發,從一九八二年末起,阿根廷經濟遭受高度不穩定,巨額財政赤字以及普遍政府能力低下。一九八九年五月總統大選,發生惡性通貨膨脹達到最高點,給予正義黨候選人梅南獲得一場輕鬆的勝選。為解決通貨膨脹的問題,於一九九一年,在經濟部長卡瓦略的主導下,阿根廷比索的幣值藉由法律釘住美元。在阿根廷,貨幣穩定措施和結構調整改革主要在梅南的第一任期實施(1989-1995)。這些政策很快在梅南就任總統後推行開來以及在他兩次任期內明確地執行(1989-1999)。換言之,根據經濟自由主義和華盛頓共識,在過去十年阿根廷確實發生了重大的改革,尤其在九○年代初期。

    新自由主義的具體主張是所謂的「華盛頓共識」政策方針。華盛頓共識有三項主要的觀念要旨:第一、經由貿易自由化和較平易的外國直接投資,使拉丁美洲的市場向世界經濟開放。第二、不但經由財政紀律、預算平衡和稅制改革以增強經濟部門的專業角色,而且經由民營化以減少政府對經濟的直接干預。第三、增強市場在資源分配的重要性和經由解除管制、保護產權和金融自由化以使私人部門成為經濟成長的重要工具。

    由於經濟的衰退,阿根廷很快失去了投資者的信心,資金從國家抽逃增加。二○○一年,人民擔心情況惡化,開始從他們的銀行賬目提取大量金額存款,將比索兌換成美元並轉移至國外,造成銀行擠兌。在阿根廷的危機,一開始是經濟和金融危機,然後變成社會危機,接著併發為政治危機。事實上,在二○○一年年底爆發的阿根廷危機是由於政府的怠忽,因此它在本質上是一種債務危機。在阿根廷,新自由主義經濟模式在一九九○年的採行,而從那時起,阿根廷變成了在世界上極為高度自由化的金融體系之一。資金能夠自由地進出流動而甚至不用明確的記錄要求。結果,阿根廷的國家主權即政治自主和經濟獨立乃受制於全球資本主義體系。這樣一來,無可否認,阿根廷危機與新自由主義發展模式有著很大的關係。此外,這也是本文研究的主要論點。
    The neoliberal ascendancy in economic theory and policy commenced during the second half of the 1970s.The country''s neoliberal experiment began on March 24,1976 when the most brutal dictatorship in Argentina''s 20th century history came to power through a military coup.The military''s economic policy reversed decades of protectionist development policies aimed at industrialization and developing the internal market.Due to the outbreak of the debt crisis,from late 1982 on,the Argentine economy experienced high instability,huge fiscal deficits,and the general deterioration of government capacities.The May 1989 presidential elections,occurring at the peak of hyperinflation,gave an easy victory to the Peronist candidate Carlos Menem.For the purpose of solving the problem of inflation,in 1991,under the rule of Minister of Economy Domingo Cavallo,the Argentine peso''s monetary value was fixed by law to the value of the United States dollar.Monetary stabilization measures and structural adjustment reforms in Argentina were carried out mainly in Carlos Menem''s first term(1989-1995).They were launched soon after Menem''s accession to the presidency and clearly led by the executive throughout his two terms in office(1989-1999).In other words,according to the economic liberalism and the Washington Consensus,significant reform has indeed occurred in Argentina over the last decade,in particular in the early 1990s.

    The concrete view of Neoliberalism is the so-called “Washington Consensus”policy orientation.The Washington Consensus has three main ideological thrusts.First,the opening up of Latin American markets to the world economy through trade liberalization and easier foreign direct investment.Second,the reduction of direct government intervention in the economy through privatization as well as increasing the professional role of economic ministries-through fiscal discipline,balanced budgets and tax reform.Third,increasing the significance of the market in the allocation of resources and making the private sector the main instrument of economic growth through deregulation,secure property rights and financial liberalization.

    Because of the recession of the economy,Argentina quickly lost the confidence of investors,and the flight of money away from the country increased.In 2001,people fearing the worst began withdrawing large sums of money from their bank accounts,turning pesos into dollars and sending them abroad,causing a bank run.The crisis in Argentina,began as an economic and financial crisis,and then became a social crisis and exploded as a political one.In fact,the Argentine crisis that broke out at the end of 2001 was caused by the government''s default;therefore,it was a debt crisis in nature.In Argentina,the neoliberal economic model took off in 1990,and from then on,Argentina became one of the most highly liberalized financial systems in the world.Capital could freely flow in and out without even clear registration demands.As a result,Argentina''s national sovereignty –its political autonomy and its economic independence –was subjugated to the global capitalist system.In this way,there is no denying that the Argentine crisis has a great relation with the neoliberal model of development.Furthermore,this is also the main issue of the research.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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