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    題名: 諾貝爾和平獎得主莉戈貝塔.曼楚之研究
    其他題名: The Nobel peace laureate Rigoberta Menchú
    作者: 林咸思;Lin, Hsien-szu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀;Chen, Hsiao-chuan
    關鍵詞: 瓜地馬拉原住民;屠殺;人權;和平;諾貝爾和平獎;曼楚基金會;莉戈貝塔曼楚;社會正義;Guatemalan Indigenous;genocide;Human Rights;peace;The Nobel Peace Prize;Foundation of Rigoberta Menchú;Tum;Rigoberta Menchú
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:47:48 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 一九九二年,一位瓜地馬拉原住民女性莉戈貝塔.曼楚(Rigoberta Menchú),因為積極參與追求和平、提倡人權而得到「諾貝爾基金會」(The Nobel Foundation)的肯定,榮獲「諾貝爾和平獎」殊榮。本論文旨在研究曼楚生平過程,瓜國社會對她的影響,以及她對社會做出的貢獻。    十六世紀西班牙人征服瓜地馬拉後,接管了境內的土地,且將原住民視同奴隸般對待,印地安人的地位位居次等。一八二一年,瓜地馬拉從西班牙獨立後,原住民地位依舊卑微。一九六O年到一九九六年間,瓜國內部發生了為期三十六年的內戰。政府與游擊隊勢力互相抗衡。內戰期間大量的原住民被殺害,曼楚因為爭取人權,積極參與對抗政府的活動,導致最後被迫流亡墨西哥。在曼楚流亡期間,透過人類學者伊麗莎白.布爾戈(Elisabeth Burgos)協助於一九八二年出版一本自傳。透過自傳,世人漸漸了解到曼楚以及瓜國人民的遭遇。曼楚也因此聲名大噪。然而在曼楚獲獎後七年,美國人類學者大衛.史托(David Stoll)提出曼楚自傳造假的質疑,並認為她不適合獲得和平獎的殊榮。 研究結果發現,史托的質疑並未影響曼楚的聲譽,曼楚也未因此消息而停止聲張人權、促進和平的腳步。二OO七年二月,曼楚宣佈參選代表「發現瓜地馬拉政黨」 (Encuentro por Guatemala)角逐年底的總統一職。以女性身分參選總統雖然並非首創先例,但是以原住民女性身分成為總統候選人,卻是史無前例。這件事情對原住民族群的影響,在精神層面高於物質層面。這意味著,原住民族群也是非常優秀的族群,其地位不再是卑微低下的。曼楚出生貧苦,靠著自己的努力得到今天的地位,從前的反對勢力,如今轉換成欲執政團隊,也可從此看出瓜國的民主與政治的進步。曼楚是否能如願當登上總統寶座,則可拭目以待。
    In 1992, a Guatemalan indigenous feminine Rigoberta Menchú had the hornor to get "the Nobel peace prize" because of the advocacy of world peace and human rights. The main theme of this essay is to investigate Rigoberta Menchú’s whole life, what influenced her behaviors and her contributions to the society. In 16th century, after Spain conquered Guatemala, they governed this new land and treated the indigenous people as slaves. Although Guatemala was independent from Spain since 1821, the social status of indigenous people were still low. During 1960 to 1996, there was an 36year civil war in Guatemala, the government and the guerrilla force attacked mutually. In the course of civil war, massive indigenous people were murdered and killed. Menchú strove for the human rights, and participated in the resistance of government positively, so she was under arrest of Guatemalan army and had to lead to exile to Mexico. During her exile period, she met an anthropologist Elisabeth Burgos, who helped Menchú publish an autobiography and let the whole world know the tragedy happened in Guatemala. Because of the autobiography, Menchú became to be well- known to the world and started to get some criticisms. In 1999, an American anthropologist David Stoll queried Menchú’s qualification of the Nobel Peace Prize, because he found the descriptions in the autobiography were not all true. However, Menchú didn’t stop her work because of the criticism, she keeps working on promoting human rights and world peace. In February of 2007, Menchú announced that she will represents " Encuentro por Guatemala " to run for the presidential elections. As the indigenous candidate, Menchú proves that indigenous people are not Inferior, they are as good as other population.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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