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    題名: 瓜地馬拉原住民與生態依存之研究
    其他題名: Guatemalan indigenous studies and ecology discourse
    作者: 陳柏岑;Chen, Po-tseng
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀;Chen, Hsiao-chuan
    關鍵詞: 瓜地馬拉;原住民;土地倫理;本土化主義;經濟開發;生態觀光;Guatemala;aborigine;land ethic;indigenismo;economic development;ecological tourism
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:47:37 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 一九五○年代以降,與綠色議題相關組織、條約陸續增加,卻對於使用能源之大國的約束力有限。二○○四年《京都議定書》(Kyoto Protocol)簽訂後,條款中規定締約國需每年逐漸減少二氧化碳排放量。而損耗世界能源大國之一的美國,卻因認為損害其利益一再推遲簽署,實為生態永續發展的一大阻礙。另外,拉丁美洲是世界上輸出自然資源的產地之一,它面臨與所有第三世界地區一樣地難題:「實行工業化?亦或保護環境?」。在資本主義的催化下,拉丁美洲各國政府選擇了讓經濟發展的工業化,其中由於開發過度使得生態永續發展成為最具爭議性的議題。不僅要面對國內資源及貧富極度不均,國際上來自第一世界及綠色非政府組織的介入與壓力,使得拉美的生態問題更加複雜化。
    世界各國簽訂了目不暇給的組織與條約,都讓世界人民深深感受綠色時代來臨的刻不容緩。由於原住民文化長期與自然密切地互動,如瓜地馬拉原住民的文化至今已有三千年的歷史,包括儀式、禁忌、故事、傳說,在在都反映出生態相互依存的思維,為國內保留下大量的自然資源。學者卻發現原住民族與農業或工業生產為主的文明社會接觸後,他們在自然體系的角色及長久累積以來的知識,無論是崇拜大自然,生活樸實簡單,可以在短短幾十年內巨大變遷或消失殆盡。當原住民對過往的事物遺忘與生命結束時,若來不及紀錄這些珍貴的活文化,將永遠流失。
    本文希望藉由在拉丁美洲國家中,原住民占國內人口一半以上的瓜地馬拉共和國(República de Guatemala),來探討與了解原住民文化中豐富的生物多樣性及原住民祖先之生態智慧,以應用到生態永續發展的各方面,不管是政策制定、發展經濟將原住民文化列入考量,藉此原住民不但能找回民族自信心,及其族群文化的珍貴價值,且使全人類受益讓下一代更永續得以傳承。
    After the age of 1950’s, organizations and treaties about the green terms has increased a lot; however they still can’t prevent some great nations such as the United States of America or China from which using excessive energy. After the agreement-Kyoto Protocol, has been signed, it stipulates those signatory states to decrease emissions of carbon dioxide. The United States of America didn’t sign the agreement because of its highest consumption energy of the world. In fact, that is the one of great obstacles of protecting world environment. On the other hand, Latin America is always been the main natural resources exporting zone, the dilemma between industrial development and ecological environment protecting has become one of the concerns while the Third World countries are seeking their industrialization. Under the influence of capitalism, Latin-Americans countries choose the industrialization. The problem of the exploit of the environment is a point in dispute. Lain American countries not only need to face the imbalance of national resources and properties but also the pressure from international society and the involvement of green NGO.
    With the effort which has been done by the mentioned organization, people have started to recognize the coming trend of the ecological protection, especially due to the long history of the interaction between the mother nature and aboriginal culture, Guatemalan indigenous people have three thousand of years history and ceremonies, taboos, stories and legends have been part of their culture, which reflect their ideology of dependence on the great nature and reserves of a large amount natural resources. Nevertheless, investigators find that after the aboriginal people connected to modern societies, they had either lost or changed their simple life style or religious ceremonies such as nature worship. We should feel responsible for preserving the aboriginal culture, especially when the indigious population has been decreasing.
    Half of population in Guatemala are aboriginal people, it would be a perfect example to examine the biodiversity existing in their culture. With the development of this thesis, it will help us to investigate the ecological wisdom, which their ancestors used, to obtain sustainable development of societies, and even the policy making and economy, and by which Guatemalan indigenous people find their self-confidence, the values of their culture and the benefits people obtained nowadays.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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