民進黨執政後，重視台灣本土文化發展，積極確立台灣主體意識，突顯與中華傳統文化的差異性，台灣民眾的國家認同觀愈益強化。胡錦濤上台後，積極擴大文化的影響力，促使國際社會認同「一個中國」的框架，壓縮台灣的外交空間。對台則強化兩岸文教交流，釋放惠台民眾的政策，加強統戰拉攏的力道，促使台灣民眾重新認同中華文化，壓制台灣主體意識的發展。本論文共分六章，第一章緒論，舖陳研究動機、研究目的、研究範圍、理論、文獻檢閱及重要名詞解釋。第二章探討中共對台文化戰略的形成背景與目標，以疏理其反獨促統政策的脈絡與發展。第三章針對兩岸文教交流的趨勢，歸納中共對台文化戰略的重點項目及其實際作為。第四章論述中共對台文化戰略對兩岸的影響，剖析各領域所造成的正負面影響。第五章說明台灣的因應作為，避免我民眾受中共統戰的影響，進而發揮兩岸文教交流所產生的示範作用，增進大陸民眾對台的正確了解。第六章結論，研究發現中共目前對台工作以青年學生、中南部民眾為工作重點。由台灣民眾主體意識日益穩固來看，台灣民眾受中共文教統戰影響有限。中共崛起對台灣是機會也是挑戰，政府應運用趨吉避凶、以小博大的方式，掌握美中台三邊關係的動態平衡，爭取台灣最大的國家利益。研究心得為持續強化台灣主體意識、擱置統獨爭議；和平對等、互惠雙贏；全球化佈局、穩定台美中關係等。 Since it came to power, the Democratic Progressive Party has put much emphasis on the development of Taiwan’s local culture. It has also aggressively forged the concept of Taiwan as a political entity and highlighted the difference between Taiwanese and Chinese cultures. In the meantime, recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign state has been on the increase among Taiwanese. But on the other hand, after Hu Jintao became president of China, he has further exerted the influence of Chinese culture to persuade the international community to accept the so-called “One China” framework. Apart from that, China has also multiplied cross-strait cultural exchanges, promulgated policies favorable to the Taiwanese, and strengthened the force of “united front tactics.” The fact that more and more Taiwanese regard Taiwan as a political entity means that Taiwanese are only partially influenced by China’s cultural propaganda. However, the rise of China presents both an opportunity and a challenge to Taiwan at the same time. The government should adopt measures to its benefit and use its position as a leverage tool to safeguard the dynamic equilibrium among China, US, and Taiwan so as to pursue the utmost national interests of Taiwan. This thesis therefore recommends that the government put aside the issue of independence or reunification, continue to strengthen people’s identification with Taiwan, deal with China based on the principle of peace and reciprocity for a win-win result, and work with states around the globe to stabilize the relationship among Taiwan, China, and the USA.